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Materials 2016, 9(6), 454; doi:10.3390/ma9060454

Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh (Myrtaceae), a Traditional Plant Growing in Ecuador

1
Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Microbiology Unit, DISC, University of Genoa, IRCCS-San Martino IST, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Sant’Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia, Italy
5
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-5487, Iran
6
Research Unit on Implant Infections, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
7
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 14, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dusan Losic
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)
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Abstract

Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh (Myrtaceae) is a plant native to Ecuador, traditionally used for its antiseptic properties. The composition of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant was determined by submitting it to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated to heated-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and UV detection. The presence of antimicrobial components prompted us to test the extract against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant and susceptible Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The chromatographic analysis led to the identification of 38 compounds, including polyphenols and organic acids, and represents the first chemical characterization of this plant. The extract showed modest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, with the exception of E. coli which was found to be less sensitive. Whilst methicillin-resistant strains usually display resistance to several drugs, no relevant differences were observed between methicillin-susceptible and resistant strains. Considering its long-standing use in folk medicine, which suggests the relative safety of the plant, and the presence of many known antibacterial polyphenolic compounds responsible for its antibacterial activity, the results show that M. hallii extract could be used as a potential new antiseptic agent. Moreover, new anti-infective biomaterials and nanomaterials could be designed through the incorporation of M. hallii polyphenols. This prospective biomedical application is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Myrcianthes hallii; acidic hydro-methanolic leaf extract; phytochemical composition; antibacterial activity; multidrug-resistant bacteria; polyphenols; anti-infective biomaterials Myrcianthes hallii; acidic hydro-methanolic leaf extract; phytochemical composition; antibacterial activity; multidrug-resistant bacteria; polyphenols; anti-infective biomaterials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chavez Carvajal, P.; Coppo, E.; Di Lorenzo, A.; Gozzini, D.; Bracco, F.; Zanoni, G.; Nabavi, S.M.; Marchese, A.; Arciola, C.R.; Daglia, M. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh (Myrtaceae), a Traditional Plant Growing in Ecuador. Materials 2016, 9, 454.

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