Special Issue "Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Thomas Wahl

Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering and Coastal Sustainable Systems Cluster, University of Central Florida, USA
Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 (407) 823-4534
Interests: changes in sea level, storm surges, ocean waves, precipitation, and river discharges; (coastal-)engineering design concepts; extreme value analysis; climate adaptation and resilience; integrated coastal vulnerability and risk assessment; stochastic and numerical modelling of tides, storm surges, waves, and river flows; multi hazards; coastal processes and hydrodynamics
Guest Editor
Dr. Jan Even Øie Nilsen

Ocean and Coastal Remote Sensing, Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Norway
Website | E-Mail
Interests: physical oceanography; sea level change; sea level variability; sea level projections and predictions; steric and dynamic contribution to sea level variability and change; climatic processes in the Atlantic, Nordic, and Arctic Seas; water mass transformation and deep water formation; thermohaline circulation; large scale circulation; large scale forcing
Guest Editor
Dr. Ivan Haigh

Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton at the University of Southampton, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (023) 8059 6501
Interests: sea level, storm surges, extreme events, coastal flooding, extreme value analysis; local, regional and global scales; flood and erosion risk-based management and planning; process based numerical modelling
Guest Editor
Dr. Sally Brown

Engineering and the Environment and Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Southampton, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (023) 8059 4796
Interests: impacts of sea-level rise; adaptation; risk; geomorphology; flooding; erosion; shoreline management; ports; deltas; small islands

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extreme sea levels can lead to hazardous events—such as coastal flooding, erosion, or salt water intrusion—with wide ranging environmental, societal and economic consequences. In combination with climate-driven sea-level rise, and, potentially, additional changes in storminess, dynamic wave contributions, or tidal dynamics, the adverse consequences of extreme oceanographic events are in many regions projected to escalate. Integrated coastal zone impact assessments can guide decisions on adaptive response to these changes in the physical environment and socio-economic development. To achieve this, we require:

  • An improved understanding from observations and modelling studies of the processes involved in driving regional and local mean sea level changes at different time scales.
  • Robust projections and the inherent uncertainties (including upper-tail risks) of regional and local mean level changes over the next few decades and longer time scales.
  • Accurate estimates of present-day extreme sea levels (and associated uncertainties) and potential future changes in storminess adding to trends and variability in mean sea level.
  • Models capable of simulating impacts from sea-level change and extremes, such as flooding, erosion, or ecosystem degradation, taking into account socio-economic change and adaptation.
  • Co-designed projects and cross-disciplinary collaboration between engineers, natural, social, and economic scientists, stakeholders, and policy makers.

For this Special Issue we invite contributions that address one or more of the above topics from a natural science, engineering, or socio-economic perspective.

Dr. Thomas Wahl
Dr. Jan Even Øie Nilsen
Dr. Ivan Haigh
Dr Sally Brown
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

 

Keywords

  • mean sea level rise and variability
  • storm surges, waves, tides
  • extreme value analysis
  • coastal vulnerability and impacts
  • risk management
  • governance and socio-economic change

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Observed Sea-Level Changes along the Norwegian Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(3), 29; doi:10.3390/jmse5030029
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Norway’s national sea level observing system consists of an extensive array of tide gauges, permanent GNSS stations, and lines of repeated levelling. Here, we make use of this observation system to calculate relative sea-level rates and rates corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)
[...] Read more.
Norway’s national sea level observing system consists of an extensive array of tide gauges, permanent GNSS stations, and lines of repeated levelling. Here, we make use of this observation system to calculate relative sea-level rates and rates corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) along the Norwegian coast for three different periods, i.e., 1960 to 2010, 1984 to 2014, and 1993 to 2016. For all periods, the relative sea-level rates show considerable spatial variations that are largely due to differences in vertical land motion due to GIA. The variation is reduced by applying corrections for vertical land motion and associated gravitational effects on sea level. For 1960 to 2010 and 1984 to 2014, the coastal average GIA-corrected rates for Norway are 2.0 ± 0.6 mm/year and 2.2 ± 0.6 mm/year, respectively. This is close to the rate of global sea-level rise for the same periods. For the most recent period, 1993 to 2016, the GIA-corrected coastal average is 3.5 ± 0.6 mm/year and 3.2 ± 0.6 mm/year with and without inverse barometer (IB) corrections, respectively, which is significantly higher than for the two earlier periods. For 1993 to 2016, the coastal average IB-corrected rates show broad agreement with two independent sets of altimetry. This suggests that there is no systematic error in the vertical land motion corrections applied to the tide-gauge data. At the same time, altimetry does not capture the spatial variation identified in the tide-gauge records. This could be an effect of using altimetry observations off the coast instead of directly at each tide gauge. Finally, we note that, owing to natural variability in the climate system, our estimates are highly sensitive to the selected study period. For example, using a 30-year moving window, we find that the estimated rates may change by up to 1 mm/year when shifting the start epoch by only one year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Spatial and Temporal Clustering Analysis of Extreme Wave Events around the UK Coastline
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(3), 28; doi:10.3390/jmse5030028
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Densely populated coastal regions are vulnerable to extreme wave events, which can cause loss of life and considerable damage to coastal infrastructure and ecological assets. Here, an event-based analysis approach, across multiple sites, has been used to assess the spatial footprint and temporal
[...] Read more.
Densely populated coastal regions are vulnerable to extreme wave events, which can cause loss of life and considerable damage to coastal infrastructure and ecological assets. Here, an event-based analysis approach, across multiple sites, has been used to assess the spatial footprint and temporal clustering of extreme storm-wave events around the coast of the United Kingdom (UK). The correlated spatial and temporal characteristics of wave events are often ignored even though they amplify flood consequences. Waves that exceeded the 1 in 1-year return level were analysed from 18 different buoy records and declustered into distinct storm events. In total, 92 extreme wave events are identified for the period from 2002 (when buoys began to record) to mid-2016. The tracks of the storms of these events were also captured. Six main spatial footprints were identified in terms of extreme wave events occurrence along stretches of coastline. The majority of events were observed between November and March, with large inter-annual differences in the number of events per season associated with the West Europe Pressure Anomaly (WEPA). The 2013/14 storm season was an outlier regarding the number of wave events, their temporal clustering and return levels. The presented spatial and temporal analysis framework for extreme wave events can be applied to any coastal region with sufficient observational data and highlights the importance of developing statistical tools to accurately predict such processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation)
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Dynamic Coastal Delta Change in Response to Sea-Level Rise
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(2), 24; doi:10.3390/jmse5020024
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
PDF Full-text (1635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The world’s largest deltas are densely populated, of significant economic importance and among the most valuable coastal ecosystems. Projected twenty-first century sea-level rise (SLR) poses a threat to these low-lying coastal environments with inhabitants, resources and ecology becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding. Large
[...] Read more.
The world’s largest deltas are densely populated, of significant economic importance and among the most valuable coastal ecosystems. Projected twenty-first century sea-level rise (SLR) poses a threat to these low-lying coastal environments with inhabitants, resources and ecology becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding. Large spatial differences exist in the parameters shaping the world’s deltas with respect to river discharge, tides and waves, substrate and sediment cohesion, sea-level rise, and human engineering. Here, we use a numerical flow and transport model to: (1) quantify the capability of different types of deltas to dynamically respond to SLR; and (2) evaluate the resultant coastal impact by assessing delta flooding, shoreline recession and coastal habitat changes. We show three different delta forcing experiments representative of many natural deltas: (1) river flow only; (2) river flow and waves; and (3) river flow and tides. We find that delta submergence, shoreline recession and changes in habitat are not dependent on the applied combination of river flow, waves and tides but are rather controlled by SLR. This implies that regional differences in SLR determine delta coastal impacts globally, potentially mitigated by sediment composition and ecosystem buffering. This process-based approach of modelling future deltaic change provides the first set of quantitative predictions of dynamic morphologic change for inclusion in Climate and Earth System Models while also informing local management of deltaic areas across the globe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Uncertainties in Ice Sheet Dynamics on Sea-Level Allowances at Tide Gauge Locations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/jmse5020021
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
PDF Full-text (4731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sea level is projected to rise in the coming centuries as a result of a changing climate. One of the major uncertainties is the projected contribution of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica to sea-level rise (SLR). Here, we study the impact
[...] Read more.
Sea level is projected to rise in the coming centuries as a result of a changing climate. One of the major uncertainties is the projected contribution of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica to sea-level rise (SLR). Here, we study the impact of different shapes of uncertainty distributions of the ice sheets on so-called sea-level allowances. An allowance indicates the height a coastal structure needs to be elevated to keep the same frequency and likelihood of sea-level extremes under a projected amount of mean SLR. Allowances are always larger than the projected SLR. Their magnitude depends on several factors, such as projection uncertainty and the typical variability of the extreme events at a location. Our results show that allowances increase significantly for ice sheet dynamics’ uncertainty distributions that are more skewed (more than twice, compared to Gaussian uncertainty distributions), due to the increased probability of a much larger ice sheet contribution to SLR. The allowances are largest in regions where a relatively small observed variability in the extremes is paired with relatively large magnitude and/or large uncertainty in the projected SLR, typically around the equator. Under the RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) projections of SLR, the likelihood of extremes increases more than a factor 10 4 at more than 50–87% of the tide gauges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation)
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