Special Issue "Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests"

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A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joseph M. Smoak

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Geography, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +727 873 4078
Interests: marine biogeochemistry; mangrove carbon cycle; wetland carbon burial; climate change; uranium and thorium series radionuclides as tracers of biogeochemical processes
Guest Editor
Dr. Christian Joshua Sanders

Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry, School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157 Lismore NSW 2480, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 2 66203496
Fax: +61 2 66212669
Interests: mangrove carbon cycle; coastal biogeochemistry; radioisotope detectors to measure environmental samples

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mangrove wetlands occupy a large portion of the world’s tropical and subtropical coastlines. They are some of the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide abundant ecosystem services. These wetlands are important settings in which to examine biogeochemical cycling and there are many unknowns that remain in the processes that control the transformation, transport and storage of biogeochemically important constituents. The complex hydrologic conditions and underlying geology create a challenging environment in which to examine these processes. Because they inhabit intertidal regions, pore water or Submarine Groundwater Discharge may play a major role in nutrient and micronutrient availability and exchange (i.e. DIC and DOC export). Similarly, the geologic setting and susceptibility to coastal and upstream anthropogenic land cover/land-use change provide numerous complications. Added to this are the pressures produced by climate change factors such as sea level, temperature, nutrient supply, and rainfall which can alter biogeochemical cycling in these systems. One of the major challenges in future mangrove biogeochemistry research will be to understand how these systems respond to change, and whether the responses produce positive or negative climate feedbacks. We invite contributions to this Special Issue that examine all aspects of mangrove ecosystem biogeochemistry. Our goal is to represent the most current understanding of biogeochemistry and examine how the biogeochemistry in these systems is responding to external factors such as climate change.

Dr. Joseph M. Smoak
Dr. Christian J. Sanders
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • mangrove wetlands
  • mangrove forests
  • coastal wetlands
  • biogeochemistry
  • carbon
  • nutrients
  • climate change
  • anthropogenic land cover/land-use change
  • submarine groundwater discharge

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Soil Organic Carbon in Mangrove Ecosystems with Different Vegetation and Sedimentological Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1404-1424; doi:10.3390/jmse3041404
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
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Abstract
A large number of studies have been conducted on organic carbon (OC) variation in mangrove ecosystems. However, few have examined its relationship with soil quality and stratigraphic condition. Mangrove OC characteristics would be explicitly understood if those two parameters were taken into account.
[...] Read more.
A large number of studies have been conducted on organic carbon (OC) variation in mangrove ecosystems. However, few have examined its relationship with soil quality and stratigraphic condition. Mangrove OC characteristics would be explicitly understood if those two parameters were taken into account. The aim of this study was to examine mangrove OC characteristics qualitatively and quantitatively after distinguishing mangrove OC from other OC. Geological survey revealed that the underground of a mangrove ecosystem was composed of three layers: a top layer of mangrove origin and two underlying sublayers of geologic origin. The underlying sublayers were formed from different materials, as shown by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Despite a large thickness exceeding 700 cm in contrast to the 100 cm thickness of the mangrove mud layer, the sublayers had much lower OC stock. Mangrove mud layer formation started from the time of mangrove colonization, which dated back to between 1330 and 1820 14C years BP, and OC stock in the mangrove mud layer was more than half of the total OC stock in the underground layers, which had been accumulating since 7200 14C years BP. pH and redox potential (Eh) of the surface soils varied depending on vegetation type. In the surface soils, pH correlated to C% (r = −0.66, p < 0.01). C/N ratios varied widely from 3.9 to 34.3, indicating that mangrove OC had various sources. The pH and Eh gradients were important factors affecting the OC stock and the mobility/uptake of chemical elements in the mangrove mud layer. Humic acids extracted from the mangrove mud layer had relatively high aliphatic contents, in contrast with the carboxylic acid rich sublayers, indicating that humification has not yet progressed in mangrove soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)
Open AccessArticle The Dynamics, Ecological Variability and Estimated Carbon Stocks of Mangroves in Mahajamba Bay, Madagascar
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 793-820; doi:10.3390/jmse3030793
Received: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Globally, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested at rates exceeding loss in many tropical inland forests. Madagascar contains around 2% of the global
[...] Read more.
Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Globally, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested at rates exceeding loss in many tropical inland forests. Madagascar contains around 2% of the global distribution, >20% of which has been deforested since 1990, primarily from over-harvest for forest products and conversion for agriculture and aquaculture. While historically not prominent, mangrove loss in Madagascar’s Mahajamba Bay is increasing. Here, we focus on Mahajamba Bay, presenting long-term dynamics calculated using United States Geological Survey (USGS) national-level mangrove maps contextualized with socio-economic research and ground observations, and the results of contemporary (circa 2011) mapping of dominant mangrove types. The analysis of the USGS data indicated 1050 hectares (3.8%) lost from 2000 to 2010, which socio-economic research suggests is increasingly driven by commercial timber extraction. Contemporary mapping results permitted stratified sampling based on spectrally distinct and ecologically meaningful mangrove types, allowing for the first-ever vegetation carbon stock estimates for Mahajamba Bay. The overall mean carbon stock across all mangrove classes was estimated to be 100.97 ± 10.49 Mg C ha−1. High stature closed-canopy mangroves had the highest average carbon stock estimate (i.e., 166.82 ± 15.28 Mg C ha−1). These estimates are comparable to other published values in Madagascar and elsewhere in the Western Indian Ocean and demonstrate the ecological variability of Mahajamba Bay’s mangroves and their value towards climate change mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)
Open AccessArticle Phylogenetic Diversity of Diazotrophs along an Experimental Nutrient Gradient in Mangrove Sediments
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 699-719; doi:10.3390/jmse3030699
Received: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The diversity of diazotrophs was studied in the sediment of mangrove forests (Twin Cays, Belize) subjected to a long-term fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) and cloning of PCR-amplified nifH genes were combined via in silico analysis to
[...] Read more.
The diversity of diazotrophs was studied in the sediment of mangrove forests (Twin Cays, Belize) subjected to a long-term fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) and cloning of PCR-amplified nifH genes were combined via in silico analysis to assign clones to TRFLP-nifH phylotypes, as well as to characterize the occurrence of phylotypes in response to environmental conditions. Results indicated that mangrove sediments from Belize harbor a unique diazotrophic community with a low metabolic diversity dominated by sulfate reducers. The variability of potential nitrogen-fixing sulfate reducers was explained by several environmental parameters, primarily by the abundance of dead roots in the sediments, and the concentration of H2S in the pore-waters. This study describes the complexity of microbial communities within the mangrove sediments with specific functional groups varying along environmental gradients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)
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Open AccessArticle Artificial Crab Burrows Facilitate Desalting of Rooted Mangrove Sediment in a Microcosm Study
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 539-559; doi:10.3390/jmse3030539
Received: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water uptake by mangrove trees can result in salt accumulation in sediment around roots, negatively influencing growth. Tidal pumping facilitates salt release and can be enhanced by crab burrows. Similarly, flushing of burrows by incoming tidal water decreases sediment salinity. In contrast to
[...] Read more.
Water uptake by mangrove trees can result in salt accumulation in sediment around roots, negatively influencing growth. Tidal pumping facilitates salt release and can be enhanced by crab burrows. Similarly, flushing of burrows by incoming tidal water decreases sediment salinity. In contrast to burrows with multiple entrances, the role of burrows with one opening for salinity reduction is largely unknown. In a microcosm experiment we studied the effect of artificial, burrow-like macro-pores with one opening on the desalting of mangrove sediment and growth of Rhizophora mangle L. seedlings. Sediment salinity, seedling leaf area and seedling growth were monitored over six months. Artificial burrows facilitated salt release from the sediment after six weeks, but seedling growth was not influenced. To test whether crab burrows with one opening facilitate salt release in mangrove forests, sediment salinities were measured in areas with and without R. mangle stilt roots in North Brazil at the beginning and end of the wet season. In addition, burrows of Ucides cordatus were counted. High crab burrow densities and sediment salinities were associated with stilt root occurrence. Precipitation and salt accumulation by tree roots seem to have a larger effect on sediment salinity than desalting by U. cordatus burrows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)
Open AccessArticle Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 466-491; doi:10.3390/jmse3020466
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in
[...] Read more.
Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen, while tidal sampling of estuarine and mangrove water identified source and sink functions of the entire mangrove forest. Fluxes of oxygen during incubations were always directed into the sediment, indicating heterotrophy of the system. There was a net uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly caused by nitrate influx, while ammonium and nitrite showed variable flux direction. Despite high pore water concentrations, phosphate and silica showed net uptake. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon were generally low except for high efflux in the dark following a storm event. Due to the combination of small forest area and strong anthropogenic nutrient input, the net sink function for dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus provides no significant buffer against the eutrophication of coastal waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)
Open AccessArticle Concentrations and Fractionation of Carbon, Iron, Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Mangrove Sediments Along an Intertidal Gradient (Semi-Arid Climate, New Caledonia)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(1), 52-72; doi:10.3390/jmse3010052
Received: 2 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In mangrove ecosystems, strong reciprocal interactions exist between plant and substrate. Under semi-arid climate, Rhizophora spp. are usually predominant, colonizing the seashore, and Avicennia marina develops at the edge of salt-flats, which is the highest zone in the intertidal range. Along this zonation,
[...] Read more.
In mangrove ecosystems, strong reciprocal interactions exist between plant and substrate. Under semi-arid climate, Rhizophora spp. are usually predominant, colonizing the seashore, and Avicennia marina develops at the edge of salt-flats, which is the highest zone in the intertidal range. Along this zonation, distribution and speciation of C, Fe, S, N, and P in sediments and pore-waters were investigated. From the land-side to the sea-side of the mangrove, sediments were characterized by I/ increase in: (i) water content; (ii) TOC; (iii) mangrove-derived OM; II/ and decrease in: (i) salinity; (ii) redox; (iii) pH; (iv) solid Fe and solid P. Beneath Avicennia and Rhizophora, TS accumulated at depth, probably as a result of reduction of iron oxides and sulfate. The loss of total Fe observed towards the sea-side may be related to sulfur oxidation and to more intense tidal flushing of dissolved components. Except the organic forms, dissolved N and P concentrations were very low beneath Avicennia and Rhizophora stands, probably as a result of their uptake by the root systems. However, in the unvegetated salt-flat, NH4+ can accumulate in organic rich and anoxic layers. This study shows: (i) the evolution of mangrove sediment biogeochemistry along the intertidal zone as a result of the different duration of tidal inundation and organic enrichment; and (ii) the strong links between the distribution and speciation of the different elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)

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