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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(1), 52-72; doi:10.3390/jmse3010052

Concentrations and Fractionation of Carbon, Iron, Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Mangrove Sediments Along an Intertidal Gradient (Semi-Arid Climate, New Caledonia)

1
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UR 206, UMR 7590—IMPMC, F-98848 New Caledonia, France
2
UMR BOREA 7208 CNRS-MNHN-UPMC-IRD-UCBN, Muséum National Histoire Naturelle, CP 53, 61 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France
3
Lagons, Ecosystèmes et Aquaculture Durable (LEAD/NC), Ifremer, 101, Promenade Roger Laroque, Center IRD, BP 2059–98846 Nouméa Cedex, New Caledonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joseph M. Smoak and Christian Joshua Sanders
Received: 2 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)
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Abstract

In mangrove ecosystems, strong reciprocal interactions exist between plant and substrate. Under semi-arid climate, Rhizophora spp. are usually predominant, colonizing the seashore, and Avicennia marina develops at the edge of salt-flats, which is the highest zone in the intertidal range. Along this zonation, distribution and speciation of C, Fe, S, N, and P in sediments and pore-waters were investigated. From the land-side to the sea-side of the mangrove, sediments were characterized by I/ increase in: (i) water content; (ii) TOC; (iii) mangrove-derived OM; II/ and decrease in: (i) salinity; (ii) redox; (iii) pH; (iv) solid Fe and solid P. Beneath Avicennia and Rhizophora, TS accumulated at depth, probably as a result of reduction of iron oxides and sulfate. The loss of total Fe observed towards the sea-side may be related to sulfur oxidation and to more intense tidal flushing of dissolved components. Except the organic forms, dissolved N and P concentrations were very low beneath Avicennia and Rhizophora stands, probably as a result of their uptake by the root systems. However, in the unvegetated salt-flat, NH4+ can accumulate in organic rich and anoxic layers. This study shows: (i) the evolution of mangrove sediment biogeochemistry along the intertidal zone as a result of the different duration of tidal inundation and organic enrichment; and (ii) the strong links between the distribution and speciation of the different elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangrove; zonation; biogeochemistry; New Caledonia mangrove; zonation; biogeochemistry; New Caledonia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deborde, J.; Marchand, C.; Molnar, N.; Patrona, L.D.; Meziane, T. Concentrations and Fractionation of Carbon, Iron, Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Mangrove Sediments Along an Intertidal Gradient (Semi-Arid Climate, New Caledonia). J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3, 52-72.

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