Special Issue "Mesoporous Materials"

A special issue of Inorganics (ISSN 2304-6740). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Samuel Bernard

SPCTS (UMR CNRS 7315), European Ceramic Center, Limoges-France European Membrane Institute, Montpellier-France
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Interests: boron nitride; silicon nitride; transition metal nitride; aluminium nitride; precursor chemistry; polymer-derived ceramics; porous components; nanocomposites; fibers
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. André Ayral

IEM (Institut Europeen des Membranes), UMR 5635 (CNRS-ENSCM-UM), Universite de Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon, F- 34095, Montpellier, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: soft chemistry routes; oxide ceramics; hybrid materials; thin films; membranes; porosity tailoring; porosity characterization
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Philippe Miele

IEM (Institut Europeen des Membranes), UMR 5635 (CNRS-ENSCM-UM), Université of Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095, Montpellier, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: boron nitride; fibers; nanotubes; nanostructured ceramics; porous ceramics; hierarchical materials; molecular an polymeric precursors of non-oxide ceramics; borazine; borazine-based preceramic polymers; boron-based materials for hydrogen storage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Materials with porous features at the nano-scale have important applications in optics, electrical insulation, thermal insulation, catalysis, sorption, membrane separation, bio-separation, cosmetics, drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and related nanotechnology. Most porous materials fall under three major categories: microporous, mesoporous and macroporous. Mesoporous materials (IUPAC definition: pore size 2–50 nm) may be prepared using various synthetic routes, with various macroscopic morphologies (e.g., powders, spherules, fibers, thin films and monoliths). The diverse properties of mesoporous materials originate from the ability to control the sizes and periodic ordering of the mesochannels and macroscopic morphology, while also tailoring the inorganic framework and internal pore surface or channel compositions to influence macroscopic adsorption, reaction, transport, photo-response, or other properties.

This Special Issue aims to provide a range of comprehensive reviews and research articles on advances in the synthesis (exo-templating, endo-templating approaches, etc.), functionalization/modification (by organic species, etc.) and application of mesoporous inorganic materials, including oxide and non-oxide-types with different architectures (ordered, disordered, hierarchical) and morphologies (from powders to monoliths).

Dr. Samuel Bernard
Prof. Dr. André Ayral
Prof. Dr. Philippe Miele
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sol-gel
  • polymer-derived ceramics
  • hybrids; silicate
  • metal oxide
  • nitride; carbide
  • mesoporous
  • ordered
  • hierarchical
  • powders
  • spherules
  • fibers
  • thin films
  • monoliths

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Treatment of Tannin: A Route to Porous Metal Oxides and Metal/Carbon Hybrid Materials
Inorganics 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/inorganics5010007
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
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Abstract
In the present paper, porous materials were prepared from the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous solutions of tannin, a renewable phenolic resource extracted from tree barks, containing dissolved salts of transition metals: V, Cr, Ni and Fe. Hydrothermal treatment produced carbonaceous particles doped with
[...] Read more.
In the present paper, porous materials were prepared from the hydrothermal treatment of aqueous solutions of tannin, a renewable phenolic resource extracted from tree barks, containing dissolved salts of transition metals: V, Cr, Ni and Fe. Hydrothermal treatment produced carbonaceous particles doped with the aforementioned metals, and such materials were treated according to two different routes: (i) calcination in air in order to burn the carbon and to recover porous oxides; (ii) pyrolysis in inert atmosphere so as to recover porous metal/carbon hybrid materials. The nature of the metal salt was found to have a dramatic impact on the structure of the materials recovered by the first route, leading either to nano-powders (V, Cr) or to hollow microspheres (Ni, Fe). The second route was only investigated with iron, leading to magnetic Fe-loaded micro/mesoporous carbons whose texture, pore volumes and surface areas gradually changed with the iron content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Mesoporous C/CrN and C/VN Nanocomposites Obtained by One-Pot Soft-Templating Process
Inorganics 2016, 4(3), 22; doi:10.3390/inorganics4030022
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
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Abstract
Nanocomposites of ordered mesoporous carbon associated with chromium nitride (CrN) or vanadium nitride (VN) nanoparticles were obtained by a simple one-pot synthesis based on the solvent evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) process using Pluronic triblock surfactant as soft-template and a phenol-based resin (resol) as
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Nanocomposites of ordered mesoporous carbon associated with chromium nitride (CrN) or vanadium nitride (VN) nanoparticles were obtained by a simple one-pot synthesis based on the solvent evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) process using Pluronic triblock surfactant as soft-template and a phenol-based resin (resol) as carbon precursor. These nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Electron tomography (or 3D-TEM) technique was particularly useful for providing direct insight on the internal architecture of C/CrN nanocomposite. Nanocomposites showed a very well organized hexagonal mesoporous carbon structure and a relatively high concentration of nanoparticles well distributed in the porous network. The chromium and vanadium nitrides/mesoporous carbon nanocomposites could have many potential applications in catalysis, Li-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Textural Characterization of Mesoporous and Meso-/Macroporous Silica Monoliths Obtained by Spinodal Decomposition
Inorganics 2016, 4(2), 9; doi:10.3390/inorganics4020009
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (8131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silica monoliths featuring either mesopores or flow-through macropores and mesopores in their skeleton are prepared by combining spinodal phase separation and sol-gel condensation. The macroporous network is first generated by phase separation in acidic medium in the presence of polyethyleneoxides while mesoporosity is
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Silica monoliths featuring either mesopores or flow-through macropores and mesopores in their skeleton are prepared by combining spinodal phase separation and sol-gel condensation. The macroporous network is first generated by phase separation in acidic medium in the presence of polyethyleneoxides while mesoporosity is engineered in a second step in alkaline medium, possibly in the presence of alkylammonium cations as surfactants. The mesoporous monoliths, also referred as aerogels, are obtained in the presence of alkylpolyethylene oxides in acidic medium without the use of supercritical drying. The impact of the experimental conditions on pore architecture of the monoliths regarding the shape, the ordering, the size and the connectivity of the mesopores is comprehensively discussed based on a critical appraisal of the different models used for textural analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Reliable Method for the Preparation of Multiporous Alumina Monoliths by Ice-Templating
Inorganics 2016, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/inorganics4010006
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alumina supports presenting a bimodal porosity are generally advantageous for the conversion of bulky molecules such as found in biomass, refining, and petrochemistry. However, shaping of such materials, while controlling pores size and orientation, proves to be hard. This problem can be tackled
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Alumina supports presenting a bimodal porosity are generally advantageous for the conversion of bulky molecules such as found in biomass, refining, and petrochemistry. However, shaping of such materials, while controlling pores size and orientation, proves to be hard. This problem can be tackled by using a simple method involving sol-gel chemistry, surfactant self-assembly, and ice-templating. Herein, a systematic study of the formulation and process parameters’ influence on the final material properties is presented. This protocol results in the repeatable preparation of centimeter-sized alumina monoliths presenting a uni-directional macroporosity and structured mesopores. These monoliths should be of particular interest in high flow rate catalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Micro and Mesoporous Amorphous Silica-Based Materials from Single Source Precursors
Inorganics 2016, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/inorganics4010005
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
Polysilazanes functionalized with alkoxy groups were designed and synthesized as single source precursors for fabrication of micro and mesoporous amorphous silica-based materials. The pyrolytic behaviors during the polymer to ceramic conversion were studied by the simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis. The porosity of
[...] Read more.
Polysilazanes functionalized with alkoxy groups were designed and synthesized as single source precursors for fabrication of micro and mesoporous amorphous silica-based materials. The pyrolytic behaviors during the polymer to ceramic conversion were studied by the simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis. The porosity of the resulting ceramics was characterized by the N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurements. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopic analyses as well as elemental composition analysis were performed on the polymer-derived amorphous silica-based materials, and the role of the alkoxy group as a sacrificial template for the micro and mesopore formations was discussed from a viewpoint to establish novel micro and mesoporous structure controlling technologies through the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Non-Metal Doped Mesoporous Titania
Inorganics 2017, 5(1), 15; doi:10.3390/inorganics5010015
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesoporous titania (mp-TiO2) has drawn tremendous attention for a diverse set of applications due to its high surface area, interfacial structure, and tunable combination of pore size, pore orientation, wall thickness, and pore connectivity. Its pore structure facilitates rapid diffusion of
[...] Read more.
Mesoporous titania (mp-TiO2) has drawn tremendous attention for a diverse set of applications due to its high surface area, interfacial structure, and tunable combination of pore size, pore orientation, wall thickness, and pore connectivity. Its pore structure facilitates rapid diffusion of reactants and charge carriers to the photocatalytically active interface of TiO2. However, because the large band gap of TiO2 limits its ability to utilize visible light, non-metal doping has been extensively studied to tune the energy levels of TiO2. While first-principles calculations support the efficacy of this approach, it is challenging to efficiently introduce active non-metal dopants into the lattice of TiO2. This review surveys recent advances in the preparation of mp-TiO2 and their doping with non-metal atoms. Different doping strategies and dopant sources are discussed. Further, co-doping with combinations of non-metal dopants are discussed as strategies to reduce the band gap, improve photogenerated charge separation, and enhance visible light absorption. The improvements resulting from each doping strategy are discussed in light of potential changes in mesoporous architecture, dopant composition and chemical state, extent of band gap reduction, and improvement in photocatalytic activities. Finally, potential applications of non-metal-doped mp-TiO2 are explored in water splitting, CO2 reduction, and environmental remediation with visible light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Materials)
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