Special Issue "Immuno- and Neuropathogenesis of HIV Disease: Mechanisms, Prevention, Treatment, and Cure"
A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2016)
Prof. Dr. Brian Wigdahl
Professor and Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Director, Institute for Molecular and Medicine and Infectious Disease; Director, Center for Molecular Virology and Translational Neuroscience, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA
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Interests: immuno- and neuropathogenesis of HIV-1, HTLV-1, and HSV infection; Transcriptional regulation of retroviral gene expression; Viral genetic variation, viral reservoirs, latency, activation; Prevention, treatment, and cure of retrovirus and herpesvirus disease
The fourth decade in the fight against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now in progress and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, with its many associated comorbidities, continues to present a major health crisis worldwide. Encouraging, is that, in the industrialized world, ever increasing efficacious therapeutic combination regimens have converted a hopeless and devastating clinical picture to one that is getting closer to a long-term but clinically manageable chronic human disease with still an all-to-often lethal endpoint. In contrast, in economically challenged regions of the world, HIV infection and the associated clinical problems remain an acute life threatening pandemic in the absence of the most effective combination therapies, state-of-the-art clinical care, and an effective vaccine. Despite the significant progress with regard to understanding the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS and the development of more than 30 FDA approved therapeutic agents that have been used in numerous and very effective combination therapies to dramatically extend the average lifespan of the HIV-infected patient population, there are many avenues of research that are very needed to optimally prevent, diagnose, and treat HIV disease, and cure the HIV-infected patient population across the many subtypes of HIV infection around the world. This Special Issue will center on reviews and primary data manuscripts that focus on defining (1) new cellular and viral targets to prevent and further control HIV replication and minimize long-term toxicity; (2) viral reservoirs in the periphery including cells involved in harboring latent viral genomes, molecular mechanisms of latency, and activating and non-activating viral genotypes; (3) mechanisms to cure latently infected or activated cells; (4) events involved in transmigration of HIV-infected cells across the blood-brain barrier; (5) mechanisms that result in disruption of the blood-brain barrier; (6) interactions between the astrocytes, pericytes, brain endothelial cells and neurons that lead to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction; (7) the impact of HIV-infected microglial cells and other cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and their viral and cellular products on astrocyte-neuronal function that lead to impairment; (8) links between metabolic and vascular disease and HIV neuropathogenesis; and (9) the differential phenotypic and genotypic properties of HIV with respect to the spectrum of HIV CNS disease.
Prof. Dr. Brian Wigdahl
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- HIV treatment and prevention
- Viral reservoirs
- Cell trafficking
- Genetic variation
- Genetic diversity
- Viral latency
- HIV cure
- HIV quasispecies
- Blood–brain barrier
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Antiretroviral Treatment in HIV Positive Mothers: Neurological Implications in Virus Free Children
Author: Sergio Crovella
Abstract: Many studies have already analyzed the direct effects of HIV on the central nervous system (CNS), however CNS neuropathology after HIV infection, remains partially unknown. In early childhood, the effect of HIV on the central nervous system is even more important, being the CNS a structure in development. Although principal mechanisms for neurological impairment remain elusive, they can be attributed either to persistence of HIV in brain or antiretroviral therapy (ART) side-effects. This review aims at discussing the possible neurological impairment following ART treatment in patients with high neuronal plasticity, as children born to ART-treated mother; focusing the attention on neuro-inflammation, autophagy and epigenetic mechanisms connected to antiretroviral therapy.
Keywords: antiretroviral therapy; HIV; neurological impairment; neuro-inflammation; autophagy; epigenetic mechanisms
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapies to Fight HIV: How Far from a Success Story? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Author: Sergio Crovella
Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy continues to save lives from AIDS-related deaths, which permitted the scientific community to search for the effective cure of HIV-1. One of the pursued strategies for this endeavor is the development of immunotherapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) against HIV-1. These vaccines aim to boost immune response against HIV-1, for which some clinical trials have been developed. We summarized the pros and cons of DC-based therapeutic vaccines and critically review the evidence to gain insights for the improvement of immunotherapy strategies against HIV-1. A systematic review was performed using data from clinical trial reports (indexed on PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov database) that recruited HIV-infected patients for DC-based therapeutic immunovaccines when compared with (1) placebo, (2) a reference vaccine or (3) no vaccination.
Title: In-Vitro Blood Brain Barrier Modeling to Characterize HIV-Infected Monocyte Transmigration for Clinical Research
Authors: Bruce Shiramizu, Valerie Wojna
Title: Differential Functional Significance of the Sub-Elements within the −1 Frameshifting Motifs of HIV-1 and Human Paternally Expressed Gene 10
Authors: Jack Rolfe, Yosuke Shimaki, Caillan Crowe-McAuliffe and Warren Tate
Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
Abstract: Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is essential for replication of retroviruses like HIV-1, and occurs when the translating ribosome encounters an RNA sequence motif made up of a ‘slippery sequence’, an ‘intercodon’, and a ‘downstream structured element’. Frameshifting (−1) was considered very rare in cellular genes, but human genes such as Paternally Expressed Gene 10 (PEG10) have been documented to use the mechanism for their expression. Fine details of the mechanism remain unclear, but a generic mechanism for all motifs is unlikely. We have created HIV-1/PEG10 hybrid frameshift motifs to elucidate the functional roles of each of the sub-elements. The pseudoknot of the PEG10 motif determines its relatively high frameshifting efficiency (~22%), and increased efficiency in the HIV-1 element when substituted for the stem loop (5% to 8%). Conversely, PEG10 frameshift efficiency fell dramatically to 1% with the HIV-1 stem loop. The HIV-1 slippery sequence is the dominant sub-element within its motif. The intercodon has smaller but observable effects. A detailed mass spectrometry analysis has confirmed frameshifting occurs within the PEG10 element at several positions but mostly before the intercodon in contrast to that of HIV-1. Thus, despite a similar outcome, the frameshifting signals of HIV-1 and PEG10 are significantly divergent.