Next Article in Journal
Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium
Next Article in Special Issue
Prolonged Morphine Exposure Induces Increased Firm Adhesion in an in Vitro Model of the Blood–Brain Barrier
Previous Article in Journal
C/EBP β Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulated Inflammatory Response and Extracellular Matrix Degradation in LPS-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evolving Diversity of Hepatitis C Viruses in Yunnan Honghe, China
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 413; doi:10.3390/ijms17030413

Disrupted Homeostatic Cytokines Expression in Secondary Lymph Organs during HIV Infection

1,†
,
1,†
,
2,†
,
1
,
1
,
3,* and 1,*
1
Department of Oncology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China
2
Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China
3
Department of Pathogenic Biology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susanna Esposito and Tatsuo Kanda
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2740 KB, uploaded 22 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Research has firmly established that infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to structural disruption in secondary lymph organs (SLOs) and that IL-7 expression by SLOs is downregulated in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques. However, the foregoing has not been demonstrated in HIV-infected patients. As well, SLO-produced chemokines and cytokines, other than IL-7, have not been tested. In this study, SLOs in HIV-infected patients exhibit decreased levels of lymphoid cytokines, such as IL-7 and C–C motif chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21), due to lower expression of lymphotoxin (LT)-β. Previous research has shown that LT-β is produced mainly by CD4+T cells in rhesus macaques, while our study found the same level of LT-β expressed by CD4+T and CD8+T cells in humans. CD8+T cells substitute for depleted CD4+T cells LT-β production. Only the total number of CD3+T cells can account for the majority of LT-β in human SLOs. This study indicates a possible mechanism and a potential target for improvement of SLO function in HIV-infected patients, a novel adjuvant therapy for AIDS. View Full-Text
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; secondary lymph organs; CCL21; IL-7 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; secondary lymph organs; CCL21; IL-7
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, L.; Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Liu, L.; Yang, Y.; Guo, B.; Zhu, B. Disrupted Homeostatic Cytokines Expression in Secondary Lymph Organs during HIV Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 413.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top