Impact of HIV Infection and Anti-Retroviral Therapy on the Immune Profile of and Microbial Translocation in HIV-Infected Children in Vietnam
AbstractCD4+ T-lymphocyte destruction, microbial translocation, and systemic immune activation are the main mechanisms of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. To investigate the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the immune profile of and microbial translocation in HIV-infected children, 60 HIV vertically infected children (31 without ART: HIV(+) and 29 with ART: ART(+)) and 20 HIV-uninfected children (HIV(−)) aged 2–12 years were recruited in Vietnam, and their blood samples were immunologically and bacteriologically analyzed. Among the HIV(+) children, the total CD4+-cell and their subset (type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)/Th2/Th17) counts were inversely correlated with age (all p < 0.05), whereas regulatory T-cell (Treg) counts and CD4/CD8 ratios had become lower, and the CD38+HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-DR+CD8+- (activated CD8+) cell percentage and plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14, a monocyte activation marker) levels had become higher than those of HIV(−) children by the age of 2 years; the CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely correlated with the plasma HIV RNA load and CD8+-cell activation status. Among the ART(+) children, the total CD4+-cell and Th2/Th17/Treg-subset counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio gradually increased, with estimated ART periods of normalization being 4.8–8.3 years, whereas Th1 counts and the CD8+-cell activation status normalized within 1 year of ART initiation. sCD14 levels remained high even after ART initiation. The detection frequency of bacterial 16S/23S ribosomal DNA/RNA in blood did not differ between HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Thus, in children, HIV infection caused a rapid decrease in Treg counts and the early activation of CD8+ cells and monocytes, and ART induced rapid Th1 recovery and early CD8+-cell activation normalization but had little effect on monocyte activation. The CD4/CD8 ratio could therefore be an additional marker for ART monitoring. View Full-Text
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Bi, X.; Ishizaki, A.; Nguyen, L.V.; Matsuda, K.; Pham, H.V.; Phan, C.T.T.; Ogata, K.; Giang, T.T.T.; Phung, T.T.B.; Nguyen, T.T.; Tokoro, M.; Pham, A.N.; Khu, D.T.K.; Ichimura, H. Impact of HIV Infection and Anti-Retroviral Therapy on the Immune Profile of and Microbial Translocation in HIV-Infected Children in Vietnam. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1245.
Bi X, Ishizaki A, Nguyen LV, Matsuda K, Pham HV, Phan CTT, Ogata K, Giang TTT, Phung TTB, Nguyen TT, Tokoro M, Pham AN, Khu DTK, Ichimura H. Impact of HIV Infection and Anti-Retroviral Therapy on the Immune Profile of and Microbial Translocation in HIV-Infected Children in Vietnam. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(8):1245.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bi, Xiuqiong; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Lam V.; Matsuda, Kazunori; Pham, Hung V.; Phan, Chung T.T.; Ogata, Kiyohito; Giang, Thuy T.T.; Phung, Thuy T.B.; Nguyen, Tuyen T.; Tokoro, Masaharu; Pham, An N.; Khu, Dung T.K.; Ichimura, Hiroshi. 2016. "Impact of HIV Infection and Anti-Retroviral Therapy on the Immune Profile of and Microbial Translocation in HIV-Infected Children in Vietnam." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 8: 1245.
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