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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2828-2853; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072828

Assessing Environmental Risks for Established Invasive Weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and Yellow (L. vulgaris) Toadflax in North America

1
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 1648 South 7th Avenue, MSU Campus, Bozeman, MT 59717-2780, USA
2
Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, 334 Leon Johnson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
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Abstract

Environmental risk assessments characterizing potential environmental impacts of exotic weeds are more abundant and comprehensive for potential or new invaders than for widespread and well-established species such as Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica [L.] Mill.) and yellow (L. vulgaris Mill.) toadflax. Specific effects evaluated in our assessment of environmental risks posed by yellow and Dalmatian toadflax included competitive displacement of other plant species, reservoirs of plant disease, animal and insect use, animal toxicity, human toxicity and allergenicity, erosion, and wildfire. Effect and exposure uncertainties for potential impacts of toadflax on human and ecological receptors were rated. Using publicly available information we were able to characterize ecological and human health impacts associated with toadflax, and to identify specific data gaps contributing to a high uncertainty of risk. Evidence supporting perceived negative environmental impacts of invasive toadflax was scarce. View Full-Text
Keywords: invasive species; risk analysis; exposure assessment; ecological risk; Linaria invasive species; risk analysis; exposure assessment; ecological risk; Linaria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Sing, S.E.; Peterson, R.K.D. Assessing Environmental Risks for Established Invasive Weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and Yellow (L. vulgaris) Toadflax in North America. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 2828-2853.

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