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Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production
Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, Conner Hall, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2011; in revised form: 19 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published: 14 December 2011
Abstract: The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks.
Keywords: pesticide use; environmental impacts; ozone depletion potential; Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ); field use rating; fumigants; alternatives; methyl bromide
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sande, D.; Mullen, J.; Wetzstein, M.; Houston, J. Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 4649-4661.
Sande D, Mullen J, Wetzstein M, Houston J. Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(12):4649-4661.
Sande, Doris; Mullen, Jeffrey; Wetzstein, Michael; Houston, Jack. 2011. "Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 12: 4649-4661.