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Special Issue "Suicide Prevention among Youth"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Danuta Wasserman

Department of Public Health Sciences, The National Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute (KI), SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Vladimir Carli

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 10523, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Gergo Hadlaczky

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE-171 77, Sweden
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Collegues,

Globally, suicide accounts for 7.3% of all deaths among adolescents and is ranked as the second most important cause of death after traffic accidents. It is estimated that for every adolescent suicide death, there are at least 10–40 suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is the strongest predictor of future suicide and, among young people, is an important indicator for long-term health-care requirements and social burden. Young suicide attempters are likely to develop serious mental health problems such as depression, substance dependence as well as somatic health problems, such as metabolic syndrome and inflammatory diseases, when they reach adulthood. They are more likely to be engaged in violent crime, intimate partner violence, to be unemployed and in need of long-term health-care. They are also lonelier and less satisfied with their lives. Importantly, suicidal behaviors have profound negative consequences on the lives of significant others’ and have a high burden on society in terms of years of life lost, as well as considerable financial and emotional costs.

The foremost ingredient for the successful prevention of youth suicide is knowledge. This Special Issue will be dedicated to research on the topic of youth suicide from a multifaceted perspective that includes biological, psychological and social determinants, risk and protective factors, as well as preventive measures.

Prof. Dr. Danuta Wasserman
Dr. Vladimir Carli
Dr. Gergo Hadlaczky
Guest Editors

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 489; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050489
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
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Abstract
Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an
[...] Read more.
Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 294; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030294
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association
[...] Read more.
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Chronic Stress and Suicidal Thinking Among Medical Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 212; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020212
Received: 15 November 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
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Abstract
Introduction: The subject of chronic stress and ways of dealing with it are very broad. The aim of this study was to analyze stress and anxiety and their influence on suicidal thinking among medical students. Materials and Methods: The study was
[...] Read more.
Introduction: The subject of chronic stress and ways of dealing with it are very broad. The aim of this study was to analyze stress and anxiety and their influence on suicidal thinking among medical students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the years 2014 to 2015 in Poland, at the Medical University—Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum. The objective of this study was to assess chronic stress and suicidal thinking among students and how students cope with this huge problem. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were conducted to detect differences. Results: Analyses showed that students’ life is full of stressors. Students toward the end of their education cope better with stress than students starting their university studies. Chronic stress has a strong impact on mental health and suicidal thinking among students. Conclusions: The results of the study confirmed that chronic stress and anxiety have a negative influence on mental health and also confirm a relation to suicidal thinking in medical students. Students cope with stress by listening to music, talking to relatives or people close to them, resting or engaging in sports, with cycling, running and swimming being the most common methods used to affect suicidal thinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Knowledge of Suicide Prevention and Work Experience among Clinical Staff on Attitudes towards Working with Suicidal Patients and Suicide Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 195; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020195
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
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Abstract
Suicide-preventive training has shown to influence attitudes. This study aimed at investigating what impact other factors than knowledge might have on attitudes towards work with suicidal patients and suicide prevention. In 2007, 500 health-care staff working in a psychiatric clinic in Stockholm received
[...] Read more.
Suicide-preventive training has shown to influence attitudes. This study aimed at investigating what impact other factors than knowledge might have on attitudes towards work with suicidal patients and suicide prevention. In 2007, 500 health-care staff working in a psychiatric clinic in Stockholm received a questionnaire with items concerning work with suicidal patients to which 358 (71.6%) responded. A set of attitude items were tested using structural equation modelling (LISREL). Three models were found to be satisfactory valid and reliable: Job clarity, Job confidence and Attitudes towards prevention. These were then used in regression analyses as dependent variables with predictors such as experience of work with suicidal patients, perceived sufficient training, age and gender. Perceived sufficient training was consistently the most important predictor for all three attitude concepts (p < 0.01, β = 0.559 for Job clarity; p < 0.01, β = 0.53 for Job confidence; p < 0.01, β = 0.191 for Attitudes towards prevention). Age was another significant predictor for Job clarity (p < 0.05, β = 0.134), as was experience of patient suicide for Job confidence (p < 0.05, β = 0.137). It is concluded that providing suicide preventive education is likely to improve attitudes towards the prevention of suicide, clarity and confidence regarding their role in the care for suicidal patients. These improvements may contribute to the prevention of suicide in health care settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessCommunication Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15937-15942; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215032
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 5 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
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Abstract
Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving
[...] Read more.
Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12277-12290; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012277
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a
[...] Read more.
Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life events (35%) were the main reasons for referrals. Thus, not only the classical psychopathological symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal behaviours, but also negative life events and poor social relationships (especially isolation) motivate referrals for treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12291-12303; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012291
Received: 5 September 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Impulsivity and Reasons for Living Among African American Youth: A Risk-Protection Framework of Suicidal Ideation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5196-5214; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505196
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of
[...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18–24). Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of) premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of) perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of) premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Trend of Suicide Rates According to Urbanity among Adolescents by Gender and Suicide Method in Korea, 1997–2012
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5129-5142; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505129
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to quantifiably evaluate the trend of the suicide rate among Korean adolescents from 1997 to 2012 according to urbanity. We used national death certificates and registration population data by administrative district for 15–19 years-old adolescents. The annual percent change (APC)
[...] Read more.
This study aims to quantifiably evaluate the trend of the suicide rate among Korean adolescents from 1997 to 2012 according to urbanity. We used national death certificates and registration population data by administrative district for 15–19 years-old adolescents. The annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) were estimated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. The suicide rate in the rural areas was higher than that in the urban areas in both genders (males (/100,000), 12.2 vs. 8.5; females (/100,000), 10.2 vs. 7.4 in 2012). However, the trend significantly increased only in the urban area (AAPC [95% CI]: males 2.6 [0.7, 4.6], females 3.3 [1.4, 5.2]). In urban areas, the suicide rate by jumping significantly increased in both genders (AAPC [95% CI]: males, 6.7 [4.3, 9.1]; females, 4.5 [3.0, 6.1]). In rural areas, the rate by self-poisoning significantly decreased by 7.9% per year for males (95% CI: −12.5, −3.0) and the rate by hanging significantly increased by 10.1% per year for females (95% CI: 2.6, 18.2). The trend and methods of suicide differ according to urbanity; therefore, a suicide prevention policy based on urbanity needs to be established for adolescents in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3741-3755; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403741
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 1 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own.
[...] Read more.
The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(1), 131-145; doi:10.3390/ijerph120100131
Received: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged
[...] Read more.
Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
Open AccessArticle Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12700-12715; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212700
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary,
[...] Read more.
There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Gender Differences in Suicide Prevention Responses: Implications for Adolescents Based on an Illustrative Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2359-2372; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302359
Received: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 23 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention
[...] Read more.
Background: There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Methods: Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. Results: The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. Conclusions: We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention among Youth)
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