Special Issue "Microbiota of Fermented Beverages"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Ciani

Department of Life and Environmental Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Food, Industrial and Environmental microbiology Lab. Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Interests: yeast fermentation processes; wine and beer fermentation; yeast physiology; bioprocess; biomass recycling
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ilaria Mannazzu

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale Italia 39, 07100 Sassari
Website | E-Mail
Interests: non-conventional yeast; fermentation; yeast physiology; production of primary and secondary metabolites; natural antimicrobials; fermentative stress response
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paola Domizio

Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), University of Florence Via Donizetti 6, 50144 Firenze, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bioactive compounds production and characterization; mannoprotein; polysaccharides; wine and beer fermentation; yeast physiology; non-conventional yeast; enzymatic activities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Artisanal or industrial fermented beverages are the result of the metabolic activity of a complex microbiota made of the indigenous microorganisms naturally associated with the raw materials, and/or selected microorganisms inoculated as starter cultures.

Indeed, the identification of the key microbial communities associated with the different fermented beverages and the understanding of the physiological and metabolic interactions among microorganisms, are essential for the management of the fermentation processes and to ensure the quality of the final product. Both culturable and non-culturable microorganisms may play an important role in the final product. Thus, currently, there is great attention around the development and combination of culture-dependent/independent and metagenomic approaches for the characterization of the microbiota, and the elucidation of its metabolic potential. Likewise, new and updated studies regarding the microbial interactions that occur at all the various stages of production of fermented beverages are desirable.

In this context, we encourage the submission of papers (research papers or reviews) dealing with the study of the microbiota associated with fermented beverages. Any news in this research field is presently of great interest, and up-to-date reports and review papers are sought.

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Ciani
Prof. Dr. Ilaria Mannazzu
Prof. Dr. Paola Domizio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • alcoholic fermentation
  • fermented beverages
  • microbial diversity
  • mixed culture
  • spontaneous fermentation
  • non-Saccharomyces yeast
  • microbial interaction
  • metagenomics
  • bioactive compounds
  • mannoprotein
  • polysaccharides

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Microbiota of Fermented Beverages
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030078
Received: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
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Abstract
This special issue collected recent developments on the microbiota of fermented beverages, from raw materials to the finished product, as well as the use of specific starter cultures. In particular, several studies investigated the occurrence and use of conventional and non-conventional yeasts in
[...] Read more.
This special issue collected recent developments on the microbiota of fermented beverages, from raw materials to the finished product, as well as the use of specific starter cultures. In particular, several studies investigated the occurrence and use of conventional and non-conventional yeasts in distilled alcoholic beverages, wine, and beer production, while other papers investigated probiotic and health-promoting compounds. Results indicated that the management of microbiota greatly improves the analytical, sensorial, and healthy characteristics of fermented beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Fitness of Selected Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for White Piceno DOC Wines Production
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020037
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Verdicchio, Passerina and Pecorino are native grape cultivars of the Marche region, cultivated in winemaking area of Ascoli Piceno, in central Italy. In particular, Passerina and Pecorino varieties have been abandoned and forgotten for a long time and only in recent years are
[...] Read more.
Verdicchio, Passerina and Pecorino are native grape cultivars of the Marche region, cultivated in winemaking area of Ascoli Piceno, in central Italy. In particular, Passerina and Pecorino varieties have been abandoned and forgotten for a long time and only in recent years are rediscovered and appreciated. Here, two indigenous yeasts, isolated from grapes of Verdicchio and Pecorino varieties and identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were evaluated and compared with commercial starters cultures widely used for the vinification of Piceno DOC (Denominazione Origine Controllata) area at industrial scale. A polyphasic approach, including yeast genotyping, phenotypic traits evaluation and fermentative performance in natural grape juice, was applied to evaluate the fitness of strains. Using interdelta primers, the two selected cultures showed a unique profile while the results of microvinifications showed that both indigenous strains exhibited good enological parameters and fermentative aptitude comparable with that shown by commercial strains used as controls. The profile of volatile compounds of wines of indigenous strains was characterized by a significant high production of isoamyl acetate and ethyl esters at 22 °C and phenyl ethyl acetate at 16 °C. Overall results indicate that the two indigenous selected yeasts showed a genetic and phenotypic specificity and they could be profitably used to characterize the Piceno DOC area wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Biodiversity and Enological Potential of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts from Nemean Vineyards
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020032
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
Vineyards in Nemea, the most important viticultural zone in Greece, were surveyed for indigenous non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts of enological potential. NS populations were isolated from the final stage of alcoholic fermentation and identified by a range of molecular methods. The enological profiles
[...] Read more.
Vineyards in Nemea, the most important viticultural zone in Greece, were surveyed for indigenous non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts of enological potential. NS populations were isolated from the final stage of alcoholic fermentation and identified by a range of molecular methods. The enological profiles of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, H. osmophila, Lachancea thermotolerans, Starmerella bacillaris and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were evaluated. Significant interspecies variation was observed in fermentation kinetics. H. osmophila and T. delbrueckii showed the highest capacity for prompt initiation of fermentation, while S. bacillaris achieved a higher fermentation rate in the second half of the process. Significant differences were also observed in the chemical parameters of NS strains. S. bacillaris SbS42 and T. delbrueckii TdS45 were further evaluated in mixed-culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NS strains achieved lower population densities than S. cerevisiae. SbS42 exhibited a higher death rate than TdS45. The chemical profiles of different ferments were separated by principal component analysis (PCA). Both NS strains were associated with lower levels of ethanol, when compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. TdS45 increased the ethyl acetate levels, while SbS42 caused a different production pattern of higher alcohols. This is the first report to explore the enological potential of NS wine yeast populations from Nemea. Based on prominent enological traits identified, the selected S. bacillaris and T. delbrueckii strains may be further exploited as co-culture starters for improving the quality and enhancing the regional character of local wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Probiotic Fruit Juices Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short Chain and Long Chain Inulin Fiber
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020027
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human
[...] Read more.
Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains on Health-Promoting Compounds in Wine
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020026
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Moderate wine consumption is associated with human health benefits (reduction of cardiovascular risk and neurodegenerative diseases, decrease of onset of certain cancers) attributed to a series of bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols, with antioxidant power capable of counteracting the negative action of free radicals.
[...] Read more.
Moderate wine consumption is associated with human health benefits (reduction of cardiovascular risk and neurodegenerative diseases, decrease of onset of certain cancers) attributed to a series of bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols, with antioxidant power capable of counteracting the negative action of free radicals. Polyphenols are naturally present in the grapes, but an additional amount originates during winemaking. The aim of this work was to assess the ability of four commercial and two indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to produce bioactive compounds (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, tryptophol, melatonin and glutathione) during alcoholic fermentation. In order to exclude the fraction of antioxidant compounds naturally occurring in grapes, the strains were inoculated in a synthetic must. At the end of fermentation the bioactive compounds were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, while antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Moreover, freeze-dried samples, originating from the experimental wines, were used to perform ex-vivo assays on cultured cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophages) with the aim to evaluate their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The results indicated that the production of the considered bioactive compounds is a strain-specific property; therefore, the different yeast strains utilized during fermentation have different capabilities to modify the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: A Polysaccharide-Overproducing Yeast to Be Used in Winemaking
Fermentation 2018, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010014
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mixed starter cultures made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus #13 were inoculated in commercial grape must, and the impact of different inoculum ratios (1:1; 1:100; 1:10,000) on growth and fermentation kinetics and on the analytical profiles of the experimental wines was
[...] Read more.
Mixed starter cultures made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus #13 were inoculated in commercial grape must, and the impact of different inoculum ratios (1:1; 1:100; 1:10,000) on growth and fermentation kinetics and on the analytical profiles of the experimental wines was here evaluated. Results obtained showed that S. japonicus #13 affects S. cerevisiae growth and fermentative capability only for S. cerevisiae/S. japonicus inoculum ratio 1:10,000. The analytical profiles of the wines produced by mixed starter cultures indicated that this non-Saccharomyces yeast modulates the concentration of malic and acetic acids and of some of the most important volatile compounds, such as β-phenyl ethanol, in an inoculum-ratio-dependent fashion. Moreover, all experimental wines obtained with S. japonicus #13 in mixed cultures reached concentrations of total polysaccharides significantly higher than those obtained with pure cultures of S. cerevisiae EC1118, and total polysaccharides increased with the increase of S. japonicus #13 cell concentration. Based on these results, S. japonicus #13 might be profitably inoculated in combination with S. cerevisiae EC1118 to enhance wine complexity and aroma and to improve wine stability by increasing the final concentration of polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Metschnikowia pulcherrima Strains from Douro Wine Region
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Some non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima, have been proposed as selected starters due to their contribution for the overall aroma and chemical profiles of wines. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains
[...] Read more.
Some non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima, have been proposed as selected starters due to their contribution for the overall aroma and chemical profiles of wines. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains isolated from different locations of Douro Wine Region, and to explore their potential as co-adjuncts of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation. For that purpose, a set of 64 M. pulcherrima isolates were used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting with M13 primers demonstrated to be an efficient tool in intraspecific discrimination of M. pulcherrima strains. No significant associations were found between genotypic profiles and either geographical origin or winery. The isolates were screened for their stress resistance ability (ethanol, SO2, chitosan, copper, H2O2, and Grape Juice Medium), aroma-related activities (resistance to 5, 5′, 5′′-trifluor-d, l-leucine and cerulenin and β-glycosidase, β-lyase and sulfite-reductase activities) as well as other relevant technological proprieties (protease activity and biogenic amines production). M. pulcherrima response to the different enological traits evaluated was greatly strain-dependent. The most discriminant features were the ability of the strains to grow in Grape-Juice Medium (GJM) and sulfite-reductase, and their β-lyase and protease activities. The enological potential of a selected M. pulcherrima strain in mixed-culture with S. cerevisiae was also assessed in natural grape-juice of a local variety, under two nitrogen regimes. M. pulcherrima proved to be promising for future industrial application as a co-starter, lowering ethanol, acetic acid and, reported here for the first time, lowering hydrogen sulfide levels in the wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Saccharomyces, Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts and Malolactic Fermentation Strategies on Fermentation Kinetics and Flavor of Shiraz Wines
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040064
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to improve complexity and diversify wine style is increasing; however, the interactions between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not received much attention. This study investigated the interactions of seven non-Saccharomyces yeast strains
[...] Read more.
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to improve complexity and diversify wine style is increasing; however, the interactions between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not received much attention. This study investigated the interactions of seven non-Saccharomyces yeast strains of the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Lachancea, Metschnikowia and Torulaspora in combination with S. cerevisiae and three malolactic fermentation (MLF) strategies in a Shiraz winemaking trial. Standard oenological parameters, volatile composition and sensory profiles of wines were investigated. Wines produced with non-Saccharomyces yeasts had lower alcohol and glycerol levels than wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. Malolactic fermentation also completed faster in these wines. Wines produced with non-Saccharomyces yeasts differed chemically and sensorially from wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. The Candida zemplinina and the one L. thermotolerans isolate slightly inhibited LAB growth in wines that underwent simultaneous MLF. Malolactic fermentation strategy had a greater impact on sensory profiles than yeast treatment. Both yeast selection and MLF strategy had a significant effect on berry aroma, but MLF strategy also had a significant effect on acid balance and astringency of wines. Winemakers should apply the optimal yeast combination and MLF strategy to ensure fast completion of MLF and improve wine complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Production and Characterization of a Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Banana Waste (Musa cavendishii) from Selected Yeast
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040062
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Banana is one of the most important fruits in the Brazilian diet and is mainly consumed naturally. Losses from crop to final consumer are high and estimated in about 30%. The aim of this work was to elaborate a distilled alcoholic beverage from
[...] Read more.
Banana is one of the most important fruits in the Brazilian diet and is mainly consumed naturally. Losses from crop to final consumer are high and estimated in about 30%. The aim of this work was to elaborate a distilled alcoholic beverage from discarded banana and to compare with commercial trademarks. Initially, yeast strains were isolated from banana fruit and characterized by their production of volatile aroma compounds. The highest aroma-producing yeast isolate was identified by ITS-rRNA gene sequencing as Pichia kluyveri. Pasteurized banana pulp and peel was fermented by the selected P. kluyveri at approximately 107 cells/mL. The sugars were converted quickly, and a high ethanol concentration (413 mg/L) was achieved after 24 h of fermentation. The fermented banana must was distilled in a Femel Alambic, and the head, heart and tail fractions were collected. The banana brandy produced had highest concentration of volatile compounds compared to trademarks, such as isoamyl acetate (13.5 mg/L), ethyl hexanoate (0.8 mg/L) and others. The results showed that whole banana must could be a good substrate for fermentation and distillation, and the sensory analysis performed revealed that the produced beverage had good acceptance by the tasters. This study demonstrates the potential of banana as a possible alternative to reduce waste and increase income to farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in Fermented Rice Pudding Supplemented with Short Chain Inulin, Long Chain Inulin, and Oat as a Novel Functional Food
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040055
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic that has been shown to reduce the risk of urogenital problems and urinary tract infections. Rice pudding is a popular gluten-free dairy product, and could be a vehicle to deliver L. rhamnosus GR-1 to a broader population.
[...] Read more.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic that has been shown to reduce the risk of urogenital problems and urinary tract infections. Rice pudding is a popular gluten-free dairy product, and could be a vehicle to deliver L. rhamnosus GR-1 to a broader population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in six fermented rice pudding samples, each one supplemented with one type of prebiotic (short-chain inulin-2% w/w, 4% w/w; long-chain inulin-2% w/w, 4% w/w) and oat-0.5% w/w, 1% w/w, along with control, over a 21-day storage period. The objective was to determine if the supplementation would have a positive effect on the microbial viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1, and to evaluate the sensory properties of the samples. All of the samples had viable levels of L. rhamnosus GR-1. Bacterial counts were at least 1 × 108 CFU/mL over the 21-day storage period. The probiotic rice pudding sample supplemented with 4% w/w short-chain inulin had the highest hedonic score for flavour, sweetness, texture, and overall acceptability. This study shows that the addition of short-chain inulin, long-chain inulin, and oat had no adverse supplementation effects on the viability of L. Rhamnosus GR-1. There is the potential for the production of a novel functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Conventional and Non-Conventional Yeasts in Beer Production
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020038
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The quality of beer relies on the activity of fermenting yeasts, not only for their good fermentation yield-efficiency, but also for their influence on beer aroma, since most of the aromatic compounds are intermediate metabolites and by-products of yeast metabolism. Beer production is
[...] Read more.
The quality of beer relies on the activity of fermenting yeasts, not only for their good fermentation yield-efficiency, but also for their influence on beer aroma, since most of the aromatic compounds are intermediate metabolites and by-products of yeast metabolism. Beer production is a traditional process, in which Saccharomyces is the sole microbial component, and any deviation is considered a flaw. However, nowadays the brewing sector is faced with an increasing demand for innovative products, and it is diffusing the use of uncharacterized autochthonous starter cultures, spontaneous fermentation, or non-Saccharomyces starters, which leads to the production of distinctive and unusual products. Attempts to obtain products with more complex sensory characteristics have led one to prospect for non-conventional yeasts, i.e., non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These generally are characterized by low fermentation yields and are more sensitive to ethanol stress, but they provide a distinctive aroma and flavor. Furthermore, non-conventional yeasts can be used for the production of low-alcohol/non-alcoholic and light beers. This review aims to present the main findings about the role of traditional and non-conventional yeasts in brewing, demonstrating the wide choice of available yeasts, which represents a new biotechnological approach with which to target the characteristics of beer and to produce different or even totally new beer styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessReview The Microbial Diversity of Sherry Wines
Fermentation 2018, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010019
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
The principal role of wine yeast is to transform efficiently the grape-berries’ sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites, without the production of off-flavors. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, while other commercial or laboratory strains fail to do so.
[...] Read more.
The principal role of wine yeast is to transform efficiently the grape-berries’ sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites, without the production of off-flavors. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, while other commercial or laboratory strains fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast strains in contrast to the biological ageing of the veil-forming yeasts in Sherry wines are poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment, like fortified wines with ethanol up to 15% (v/v), known as Sherry wines. Factors that affect the correct development of the veil of flor during ageing are also reviewed, along with the related aspects of wine composition, biofilm formation processes, and yeast autolysis. This review highlights the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining Sherry wine quality and the wealth of untapped indigenous microorganisms co-existing with the veil-forming yeast strains. It covers the complexity of the veil forming wine yeasts’ genetic features, and the genetic techniques often used in strain selection and monitoring during fermentation or biological ageing. Finally, the outlook for new insights to protect and to maintain the microbiota of the Sherry wines will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the
[...] Read more.
Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040067
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the
[...] Read more.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented) including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040051
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the
[...] Read more.
Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation) and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity) of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Graphical abstract

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