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Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 51; doi:10.3390/fermentation3040051

Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

Department of Biology and Environment, Enology Building, School of Life Sciences and Environment, Chemistry Research Centre of Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Abstract

Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation) and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity) of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features. View Full-Text
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; acetic acid; malic acid; mitochondrial carriers; acetic acid metabolism; malic acid metabolism; carboxylic acids transport Saccharomyces cerevisiae; acetic acid; malic acid; mitochondrial carriers; acetic acid metabolism; malic acid metabolism; carboxylic acids transport
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vilela, A. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better? Fermentation 2017, 3, 51.

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