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Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 64; doi:10.3390/fermentation3040064

Effect of Saccharomyces, Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts and Malolactic Fermentation Strategies on Fermentation Kinetics and Flavor of Shiraz Wines

1
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij (The Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute of the Agricultural Research Council), Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
2
Institute for Wine Biotechnology & Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
3
ARC Biometry, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
4
Centre for Statistical Consultation, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota of Fermented Beverages)
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Abstract

The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to improve complexity and diversify wine style is increasing; however, the interactions between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not received much attention. This study investigated the interactions of seven non-Saccharomyces yeast strains of the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Lachancea, Metschnikowia and Torulaspora in combination with S. cerevisiae and three malolactic fermentation (MLF) strategies in a Shiraz winemaking trial. Standard oenological parameters, volatile composition and sensory profiles of wines were investigated. Wines produced with non-Saccharomyces yeasts had lower alcohol and glycerol levels than wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. Malolactic fermentation also completed faster in these wines. Wines produced with non-Saccharomyces yeasts differed chemically and sensorially from wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. The Candida zemplinina and the one L. thermotolerans isolate slightly inhibited LAB growth in wines that underwent simultaneous MLF. Malolactic fermentation strategy had a greater impact on sensory profiles than yeast treatment. Both yeast selection and MLF strategy had a significant effect on berry aroma, but MLF strategy also had a significant effect on acid balance and astringency of wines. Winemakers should apply the optimal yeast combination and MLF strategy to ensure fast completion of MLF and improve wine complexity. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeast selection; lactic acid bacteria; inoculation; volatile compounds; chemical profile; sensory evaluation; aroma yeast selection; lactic acid bacteria; inoculation; volatile compounds; chemical profile; sensory evaluation; aroma
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MDPI and ACS Style

du Plessis, H.; du Toit, M.; Nieuwoudt, H.; van der Rijst, M.; Kidd, M.; Jolly, N. Effect of Saccharomyces, Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts and Malolactic Fermentation Strategies on Fermentation Kinetics and Flavor of Shiraz Wines. Fermentation 2017, 3, 64.

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