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Special Issue "Wind Generators Modelling and Control"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Marco Mussetta

Politecnico di Milano—Energy Department—Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: optimization; neural networks; fuzzy logic; renewable energy; wind power; photovoltaics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite submissions to a Special Issue of the journal Energies on the topic of “Wind Generators Modelling and Control”.

Wind power is among the world's fastest growing renewable sources, with significant impacts on power quality, electrical grid stability, and reliability. Indeed, major challenges are involved in the modeling, control, and general operation of these systems; for example, due to sudden wind power variations and unpredictability, without proper modeling and intelligent coordination control, these wind generation systems cannot function effectively.

To address these issues, it is necessary to focus on the performance, modeling, and control of different wind generators, i.e., the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG), the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and their integration in traditional electrical grids and novel smart grids. Therefore, relevant research topics are represented by wind generator modeling techniques, both in transient and steady-state, as well as control systems, based on traditional (PI, PID) or novel control strategies (e.g., Fuzzy Logic, Neural network, etc.), with particular attention to grid disturbances, fault ride-through (FRT) and low voltage ride through (LVRT) techniques, and protection devices for power electronic converters.

This Special Issue would like to encourage original contributions regarding recent developments and ideas in wind generator modeling and control. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: Wind generator technologies, wind turbines control, wind generator diagnostics, grid interconnection, fault ride-through operation, protection devices (both on rotor and stator side), reliability, operations and maintenance, and smart-grid integration.

Prof. Marco Mussetta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wind power

  • wind turbines

  • wind farms

  • offshore wind energy

  • numerical modeling

  • power electronics

  • Fuzzy Logic Control

  • neural network

  • smart grid

  • power system

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Comparative Study on Controllers for Improving Transient Stability of DFIG Wind Turbines During Large Disturbances
Energies 2018, 11(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030480
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
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Abstract
Under power system short-circuits, the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Wind Turbines (WT) are required to be equipped with crowbar protections to preserve the lifetime of power electronics devices. When the crowbar is switched on, the rotor windings are short-circuited. In this case, the
[...] Read more.
Under power system short-circuits, the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Wind Turbines (WT) are required to be equipped with crowbar protections to preserve the lifetime of power electronics devices. When the crowbar is switched on, the rotor windings are short-circuited. In this case, the DFIG behaves like a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) and can adsorb reactive power, which can affect the power system. A DFIG based-fault-ride through (FRT) scheme with crowbar, rotor-side and grid-side converters has recently been proposed for improving the transient stability: in particular, a hybrid cascade Fuzzy-PI-based controlling technique has been demonstrated to be able to control the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based frequency converter in order to enhance the transient stability. The performance of this hybrid control scheme is analyzed here and compared to other techniques, under a three-phase fault condition on a single machine connected to the grid. In particular, the transient operation of the system is investigated by comparing the performance of the hybrid system with conventional proportional-integral and fuzzy logic controller, respectively. The system validation is carried out in Simulink, confirming the effectiveness of the coordinated advanced fuzzy logic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Performance for Full-Bridge Inverter of Wind Energy Conversion System Using a Fast and Efficient Control Technique
Energies 2018, 11(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020262
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a fast and efficient control technique with application to a full-bridge inverter of a wind energy conversion system that is capable of yielding better performance in transience and steady state. The presented control technique is made up of a finite-time
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a fast and efficient control technique with application to a full-bridge inverter of a wind energy conversion system that is capable of yielding better performance in transience and steady state. The presented control technique is made up of a finite-time convergent SMGL (sliding-mode guidance law) and a Fourier nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (FNGBM). The finite-time convergent SMGL provides a faster convergence rate of system states, as well as a singularity-free solution. However, in case the overestimation/underestimation of the uncertain system boundary occurs, the chatter/steady-state error may exist in finite-time convergent SMGL and then causes serious harmonic distortion at the full-bridge inverter output. An efficient calculational FNGBM is integrated into the finite-time convergent SMGL, thus overcoming chatter/steady-state error problems if the estimated value of the uncertain system boundary cannot be satisfied. Simulation results indicate that the proposed control technique leads to low total harmonic distortion under nonlinear loading and fast dynamic response under transient loading. Experimental results from a full-bridge inverter prototype are given to confirm the simulation results and the mathematical analyses. Because the proposed full-bridge inverter offers significant advantages over the classical finite-time convergent sliding-mode controlled full-bridge inverter in terms of convergent speed, calculational efficiency, and harmonic distortion removal, this paper will be a feasible reference for wind energy systems or other renewable energy systems in future research; for example, for photovoltaic systems and fuel cell systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Frequency Regulation of a Hybrid Wind–Hydro Power Plant in an Isolated Power System
Energies 2018, 11(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010239
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, some small islands with high wind potential are trying to reduce the environmental and economic impact of fossil fuels by using renewable resources. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these renewable resources negatively affect the quality of the electrical energy, causing frequency disturbances, especially
[...] Read more.
Currently, some small islands with high wind potential are trying to reduce the environmental and economic impact of fossil fuels by using renewable resources. Nevertheless, the characteristics of these renewable resources negatively affect the quality of the electrical energy, causing frequency disturbances, especially in isolated systems. In this study, the combined contribution to frequency regulation of variable speed wind turbines (VSWT) and a pump storage hydropower plant (PSHP) is analyzed. Different control strategies, using the kinetic energy stored in the VSWT, are studied: inertial, proportional, and their combination. In general, the gains of the VSWT controller for interconnected systems proposed in the literature are not adequate for isolated systems. Therefore, a methodology to adjust the controllers, based on exhaustive searches, is proposed for each of the control strategies. The control strategies and methodology have been applied to a hybrid wind–hydro power plant on El Hierro Island in the Canary archipelago. At present, in this isolated power system, frequency regulation is only provided by the PSHP and diesel generators. The improvements in the quality of frequency regulation, including the VSWT contribution, have been proven based on simulating different events related to wind speed, or variations in the power demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Control of Wind Farms for Coordinated TSO-DSO Reactive Power Management
Energies 2018, 11(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010173
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
The growing importance of renewable generation connected to distribution grids requires an increased coordination between transmission system operators (TSOs) and distribution system operators (DSOs) for reactive power management. This work proposes a practical and effective interaction method based on sequential optimizations to evaluate
[...] Read more.
The growing importance of renewable generation connected to distribution grids requires an increased coordination between transmission system operators (TSOs) and distribution system operators (DSOs) for reactive power management. This work proposes a practical and effective interaction method based on sequential optimizations to evaluate the reactive flexibility potential of distribution networks and to dispatch them along with traditional synchronous generators, keeping to a minimum the information exchange. A modular optimal power flow (OPF) tool featuring multi-objective optimization is developed for this purpose. The proposed method is evaluated for a model of a real German 110 kV grid with 1.6 GW of installed wind power capacity and a reduced order model of the surrounding transmission system. Simulations show the benefit of involving wind farms in reactive power support reducing losses both at distribution and transmission level. Different types of setpoints are investigated, showing the feasibility for the DSO to fulfill also individual voltage and reactive power targets over multiple connection points. Finally, some suggestions are presented to achieve a fair coordination, combining both TSO and DSO requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Harmonic Modelling of the Wind Turbine Induction Generator for Dynamic Analysis of Power Quality
Energies 2018, 11(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010104
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Given the increasing integration of wind-based generation systems into the electric grid, efforts have been made to deal with the problem of power quality associated with the intermittent nature of these systems. This paper presents a new modelling approach oriented towards harmonic distortion
[...] Read more.
Given the increasing integration of wind-based generation systems into the electric grid, efforts have been made to deal with the problem of power quality associated with the intermittent nature of these systems. This paper presents a new modelling approach oriented towards harmonic distortion analysis of the induction machine for wind power applications. The model is developed using companion harmonic circuit modelling, which is a natural approach for analysis of the adverse effects of harmonic distortion in electric power systems, and represents an easier solution method than the well known dynamic harmonic domain, since it solves algebraic equations instead of state-space differential equations. The structure of the companion circuits simplifies both the formulation and solution for power systems with wind-based generation systems. This approach is especially useful for analysis of the harmonic interaction in transient and steady states between the wind power generator and the power system, whose interconnection is made through electronic converters. The proposed model allows us to compute the dynamics of the wind turbine, which are influenced by disturbances such as changes in the wind velocity, voltage fluctuations, electric waveform distortion, and mechanical vibrations, among other factors. Moreover, the cross-coupling between harmonic components at different frequencies is considered. The proposed model represents an integral framework of the electrical and mechanical subsystems of a wind turbine, allowing for analysis of the interactions between them, and understanding power quality degradation behaviour as well as causes and consequences, while also giving useful information on the field of simulation and control. To test the performance of the proposed model, a test power system is used to obtain the behaviour of a wind turbine induction generator in response to typical power quality disturbances, i.e., harmonic distortion, and voltage sags and swells. Then, the dynamics of the variables considering their harmonic interactions are analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Output Power Smoothing and Voltage Regulation of a Fixed Speed Wind Generator in the Partial Load Region Using STATCOM and a Pitch Angle Controller
Energies 2018, 11(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010058
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The output power and terminal voltage of the fixed speed induction generator fluctuate in the partial load region where the wind speed is below the rated vale, resulting in fluctuations in the grid frequency and voltage. In this paper, a novel pitch angle
[...] Read more.
The output power and terminal voltage of the fixed speed induction generator fluctuate in the partial load region where the wind speed is below the rated vale, resulting in fluctuations in the grid frequency and voltage. In this paper, a novel pitch angle control strategy has developed by introducing an exponential moving average (EMA) concept from which the controller reference power (signal) can be set for below-rated wind speeds. Therefore, the employed pitch angle controller together with static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), named the unified voltage and pitch angle controller (UVPC), addresses the objective of smoothing the output power and terminal voltage regulation of a wind generator, subjected to below-rated wind speed variations. Moreover, an interval type-2 fuzzy logic technique has incorporated in the pitch angle controller design, since it is more efficient in handling the uncertainties in membership functions and rules than its traditional fuzzy logic counterparts. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed UVPC effectively smoothens out the generator output power and also regulates the terminal voltage at its constant magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive State Feedback—Theory and Application for Wind Turbine Control
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122145
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
A class of adaptive disturbance tracking controllers (ADTCs) is augmented with disturbance and state estimation and adaptive state feedback, in which a controller and estimator, which are designed on the basis of a lower-order model, are used to control a higher-order nonlinear plant.
[...] Read more.
A class of adaptive disturbance tracking controllers (ADTCs) is augmented with disturbance and state estimation and adaptive state feedback, in which a controller and estimator, which are designed on the basis of a lower-order model, are used to control a higher-order nonlinear plant. The ADTC requires that the plant be almost strict positive real (ASPR) to ensure stability. In this paper, we show that the ASPR property of a plant is retained with the addition of disturbance and state estimation and state feedback, thereby ensuring the stability of the augmented system. The proposed adaptive controller with augmentation is presented in the context of maximum power extraction from a wind turbine in a low-wind-speed operation region. A simulation and comparative study on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) 5 MW nonlinear wind turbine model with an existing baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative(PID) controller shows that the proposed controller is more effective than the existing baseline PID controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Naive Bayesian Wind Power Interval Prediction Approach Based on Rough Set Attribute Reduction and Weight Optimization
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111903
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
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Abstract
Intermittency and uncertainty pose great challenges to the large-scale integration of wind power, so research on the probabilistic interval forecasting of wind power is becoming more and more important for power system planning and operation. In this paper, a Naive Bayesian wind power
[...] Read more.
Intermittency and uncertainty pose great challenges to the large-scale integration of wind power, so research on the probabilistic interval forecasting of wind power is becoming more and more important for power system planning and operation. In this paper, a Naive Bayesian wind power prediction interval model, combining rough set (RS) theory and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is proposed to further improve wind power prediction performance. First, in the designed prediction interval model, the input variables are identified based on attribute significance using rough set theory. Next, the Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC) is established to obtain the prediction power class. Finally, the upper and lower output weights of NBC are optimized segmentally by PSO, and are used to calculate the upper and lower bounds of the optimal prediction intervals. The superiority of the proposed approach is demonstrated by comparison with a Naive Bayesian model with fixed output weight, and a rough set-Naive Bayesian model with fixed output weight. It is shown that the proposed rough set-Naive Bayesian-particle swarm optimization method has higher coverage of the probabilistic prediction intervals and a narrower average bandwidth under different confidence levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Extended System Frequency Response Model Considering Wind Power Participation in Frequency Regulation
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111797
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
With increasing penetration of wind power into the power system, wind power participation in frequency regulation is regarded as a beneficial strategy to improve the dynamic frequency response characteristics of power systems. The traditional power system frequency response (SFR) model, which only includes
[...] Read more.
With increasing penetration of wind power into the power system, wind power participation in frequency regulation is regarded as a beneficial strategy to improve the dynamic frequency response characteristics of power systems. The traditional power system frequency response (SFR) model, which only includes synchronous generators, is no longer suitable for power systems with high penetrated wind power. An extended SFR model, based on the reduced-order model of wind turbine generator (WTG) and the traditional SFR model, is presented in this paper. In the extended SFR model, the reduced-order model of WTG with combined frequency control is deduced by employing small signal analysis theory. Afterwards, the stability analysis of a closed-loop control system for the extended SFR model is carried out. Time-domain simulations using a test system are performed to validate the effectiveness of the extended SFR model; this model can provide a simpler, clearer and faster way to analyze the dynamic frequency response characteristic for a high-wind integrated power systems. The impact of additional frequency control parameters and wind speed disturbances on the system dynamic frequency response characteristics are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Critical Speed Control for a Fixed Blade Variable Speed Wind Turbine
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111699
Received: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
A critical speed controller for avoiding a certain rotational speed is presented. The controller is useful for variable speed wind turbines with a natural frequency in the operating range. The controller has been simulated, implemented and tested on an open site 12 kW
[...] Read more.
A critical speed controller for avoiding a certain rotational speed is presented. The controller is useful for variable speed wind turbines with a natural frequency in the operating range. The controller has been simulated, implemented and tested on an open site 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype. The controller is based on an adaptation of the optimum torque control. Two lookup tables and a simple state machine provide the control logic of the controller. The controller requires low computational resources, and no wind speed measurement is needed. The results suggest that the controller is a feasible method for critical speed control. The skipping behavior can be adjusted using only two parameters. While tested on a vertical axis wind turbine, it may be used on any variable speed turbine with the control of generator power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Short-Circuit Fault Tolerant Control of a Wind Turbine Driven Induction Generator Based on Sliding Mode Observers
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101611
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The installed energy production capacity of wind turbines is growing intensely on a global scale, making the reliability of wind turbine subsystems of greater significance. However, many faults like Inter-Turn Short-Circuit (ITSC) may affect the turbine generator and quickly lead to a decline
[...] Read more.
The installed energy production capacity of wind turbines is growing intensely on a global scale, making the reliability of wind turbine subsystems of greater significance. However, many faults like Inter-Turn Short-Circuit (ITSC) may affect the turbine generator and quickly lead to a decline in supplied power quality. In this framework, this paper proposes a Sliding Mode Observer (SMO)-based Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) scheme for Induction Generator (IG)-based variable-speed grid-connected wind turbines. First, the dynamic models of the wind turbine subsystems were developed. The control schemes were elaborated based on the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method and Indirect Rotor Flux Oriented Control (IRFOC) method. The grid control was also established by regulating the active and reactive powers. The performance of the wind turbine system and the stability of injected power to the grid were hence analyzed under both healthy and faulty conditions. The robust developed SMO-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) scheme was proved to be fast and efficient for ITSC detection and localization.Afterwards, SMO were involved in scheming the FTC technique. Accordingly, simulation results assert the efficacy of the proposed ITSC FTC method for variable-speed wind turbines with faulty IG in protecting the subsystems from damage and ensuring continuous connection of the wind turbine to the grid during ITSC faults, hence maintaining power quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Health Condition of the Wind Turbine Drivetrain System
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101583
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Condition Monitoring (CM) has been considered as an effective method to enhance the reliability of wind turbines and implement cost-effective maintenance. Thus, adopting an efficient approach for condition monitoring of wind turbines is desirable. This paper presents a data-driven model-based CM approach for
[...] Read more.
Condition Monitoring (CM) has been considered as an effective method to enhance the reliability of wind turbines and implement cost-effective maintenance. Thus, adopting an efficient approach for condition monitoring of wind turbines is desirable. This paper presents a data-driven model-based CM approach for wind turbines based on the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) algorithm. A physical kinetic energy correction model is employed to normalize the temperature change to the value at the rated power output to eliminate the effect of variable speed operation of the turbines. The residual signal, obtained by comparing the predicted values and practical measurements, is processed by the physical correction model and then assessed with a Bonferroni interval method for fault diagnosis. Models have been validated using supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data acquired from an operational wind farm, which contains various types of temperature data of the gearbox. The results show that the proposed method can detect more efficiently both the long-term aging characteristics and the short-term faults of the gearbox. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Advanced Reactive Power Reserve Management Scheme to Enhance LVRT Capability
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101540
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: To increase the utilization of wind power in the power system, grid integration standards have been proposed for the stable integration of large-scale wind power plants. In particular, fault-ride-through capability, especially Low-Voltage-Ride-Through (LVRT), has been emphasized, as it is related to
[...] Read more.
Abstract: To increase the utilization of wind power in the power system, grid integration standards have been proposed for the stable integration of large-scale wind power plants. In particular, fault-ride-through capability, especially Low-Voltage-Ride-Through (LVRT), has been emphasized, as it is related to tripping in wind farms. Therefore, this paper proposes the Wind power plant applicable-Effective Reactive power Reserve (Wa-ERPR), which combines both wind power plants and conventional generators at the Point of Interconnection (POI). The reactive power capability of the doubly-fed induction generator wind farm was considered to compute the total Wa-ERPR at the POI with reactive power capability of existing generators. By using the Wa-ERPR management algorithm, in case of a violation of the LVRT standards, the amount of reactive power compensation is computed using the Wa-ERPR management scheme. The proposed scheme calculates the Wa-ERPR and computes the required reactive power, reflecting the change of the system topology pre- and post-contingency, to satisfy the LVRT criterion when LVRT regulation is not satisfied at the POI. The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) with the capacity corresponding to calculated amount of reactive power through the Wa-ERPR management scheme is applied to the POI. Therefore, it is confirmed that the wind power plant satisfies the LVRT criteria by securing the appropriate reactive power at the POI, by applying of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Analytical Derivation of Electrical-Side Maximum Power Line for Wind Generators
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101498
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
In order to enhance the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) speed of solar generators, offline calculated maximum power line (MPL) is often used as a feed-forward signal added to the output of MPPT controller. MPL is nonlinear static electrical characteristic of renewable energy
[...] Read more.
In order to enhance the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) speed of solar generators, offline calculated maximum power line (MPL) is often used as a feed-forward signal added to the output of MPPT controller. MPL is nonlinear static electrical characteristic of renewable energy generators connecting all the maximum power points for given temperature. In this letter, electrical side MPL is derived for a typical wind turbine generator (WTG). It is shown that MPLs of solar and wind generators possess similar structure, supporting the similarity between the two energy conversion processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Sliding Mode Control Scheme for a PMSG-Based Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101476
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 24 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work proposes a novel control scheme for a variable speed wind turbine system based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator. Regions II and III for a wind speed profile are considered, hence the control is designed for maximizing the generated power from
[...] Read more.
This work proposes a novel control scheme for a variable speed wind turbine system based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator. Regions II and III for a wind speed profile are considered, hence the control is designed for maximizing the generated power from the wind turbine when the wind speed is below the nominal wind speed, and to saturate the generated power when the wind speed is above its nominal value in order to avoid damage to the system. Based on nonlinear models, the control scheme is also designed for introducing robustness to the closed-loop system. The pitch angle reference signal is also designed based on a mathematical model of the system, yielding in that way to a great performance of the wind turbine as predicted by the numeric simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Generic Type 3 Wind Turbine Model Based on IEC 61400-27-1: Parameter Analysis and Transient Response under Voltage Dips
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091441
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
PDF Full-text (5225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper analyzes the response under voltage dips of a Type 3 wind turbine topology based on IEC 61400-27-1. The evolution of both active power and rotational speed is discussed in detail when some of the most relevant control parameters, included in the
[...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the response under voltage dips of a Type 3 wind turbine topology based on IEC 61400-27-1. The evolution of both active power and rotational speed is discussed in detail when some of the most relevant control parameters, included in the mechanical, active power and pitch control models, are modified. Extensive results are also included to explore the influence of these parameters on the model dynamic response. This work thus provides an extensive analysis of the generic Type 3 wind turbine model and provides an estimation of parameters not previously discussed in the specific literature. Indeed, the International Standard IEC 61400-27-1, recently published in February 2015, defines these generic dynamic simulation models for wind turbines, but does not provide values for the parameters to simulate the response of these models. Thus, there is a pressing need to establish correlations between IEC generic models and specific wind turbine manufacturer models to estimate suitable parameters for simulation purposes. Extensive results and simulations are also included in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Electro-Geometric Model for Lightning Shielding of Multiple Wind Turbines
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091272
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
PDF Full-text (4726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind turbine blades being struck by lightning is one of the most urgent problems facing wind farms. In order to reduce the probability of lightning accidents on wind farms, this paper presents a new electro-geometric model for multiple turbines. In this new model,
[...] Read more.
Wind turbine blades being struck by lightning is one of the most urgent problems facing wind farms. In order to reduce the probability of lightning accidents on wind farms, this paper presents a new electro-geometric model for multiple turbines. In this new model, based on the physical model of lightning leader development, the striking distance range of the blade tip receptor is calculated, taking into account the influence of the charged particles around the blade. Lightning shielding amongst multiple turbines is provided in combination with the traditional electro-geometric model, and a criterion formula is obtained for mutual shielding for multiple turbines. The influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, air humidity, and altitude, on lightning shielding on large-scale wind farms is also analyzed by studying the lightning shielding distance between wind turbines. The calculation shows that the larger the relative air density and the absolute humidity, and the lower the altitude, and the larger the lightning shielding distance between wind turbines. The method proposed in this paper provides a theoretical basis for the lightning protection on wind farms under different environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Fault Prediction and Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Generators Using SCADA Data
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081210
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The fast-growing wind power industry faces the challenge of reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for wind power plants. Predictive maintenance is essential to improve wind turbine reliability and prolong operation time, thereby reducing the O&M cost for wind power plants. This study
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The fast-growing wind power industry faces the challenge of reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for wind power plants. Predictive maintenance is essential to improve wind turbine reliability and prolong operation time, thereby reducing the O&M cost for wind power plants. This study presents a solution for predictive maintenance of wind turbine generators. The proposed solution can: (1) predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of wind turbine generators before a fault occurs and (2) diagnose the state of the wind turbine generator when the fault occurs. Moreover, the proposed solution implies low-deployment costs because it relies solely on the information collected from the widely available supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Extra sensing hardware is needless. The proposed solution has been deployed and evaluated in two real-world wind power plants located in China. The experimental study demonstrates that the RUL of the generators can be predicted 18 days ahead with about an 80% prediction accuracy. When faults occur, the specific type of generator fault can be diagnosed with an accuracy of 94%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Predictive Power Control Strategy for DFIGs Based on a Wind Energy Converter System
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081098
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 23 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
A feasible control strategy is proposed to control a doubly fed induction generator based on the wind energy converter system (DFIG-WECS). The main aim is to enhance the steady state and dynamic performance under the condition of the parameter perturbations and external disturbances
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A feasible control strategy is proposed to control a doubly fed induction generator based on the wind energy converter system (DFIG-WECS). The main aim is to enhance the steady state and dynamic performance under the condition of the parameter perturbations and external disturbances and to satisfy the stator power response of the system. Within the proposed control method, the control scheme for the rotor side converter (RSC) is developed on the model predictive control. Firstly, the self-adaptive reference trajectory is established from the deduced discrete state-space equation of the generator. Then, the rotor voltage is calculated by minimizing the global performance index under the current prediction steps at the sampling instant. Through the control scheme for the grid side converter (GSC) and wind turbine, we have re-applied the conventional control. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified via time domain simulation of a 150 kW-575 V DFIG-WECS using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows that the control of the DFIG with the proposed control method can enhance the steady and dynamic response capability better than the conventional ones when the system faces errors due to the parameter perturbations, external disturbances and the rotor speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Power Transmission of Offshore Wind Power Using a VSC-HVdc Interconnection
Energies 2017, 10(7), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10071046
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
High-voltage dc transmission based on voltage-source converter (VSC-HVdc) is quickly increasing its power rating, and it can be the most appropriate link for the connection of offshore wind farms (OWFs) to the grid in many locations. This paper presents a steady-state operation model
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High-voltage dc transmission based on voltage-source converter (VSC-HVdc) is quickly increasing its power rating, and it can be the most appropriate link for the connection of offshore wind farms (OWFs) to the grid in many locations. This paper presents a steady-state operation model to calculate the optimal power transmission of an OWF connected to the grid through a VSC-HVdc link. The wind turbines are based on doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), and a detailed model of the internal OWF grid is considered in the model. The objective of the optimization problem is to maximize the active power output of the OWF, i.e., the reduction of losses, by considering the optimal reactive power allocation while taking into account the restrictions imposed by the available wind power, the reactive power capability of the DFIG, the DC link model, and the operating conditions. Realistic simulations are performed to evaluate the proposed model and to execute optimal operation analyses. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and demonstrate the advantages of using the reactive control performed by DFIG to achieve the optimal operation of the VSC-HVdc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Short-Term Power Forecasting of Wind Turbines: The Case of Jeju Island’s Wind Farm
Energies 2017, 10(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10060812
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Short-term wind power forecasting is a technique which tells system operators how much wind power can be expected at a specific time. Due to the increasing penetration of wind generating resources into the power grids, short-term wind power forecasting is becoming an important
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Short-term wind power forecasting is a technique which tells system operators how much wind power can be expected at a specific time. Due to the increasing penetration of wind generating resources into the power grids, short-term wind power forecasting is becoming an important issue for grid integration analysis. The high reliability of wind power forecasting can contribute to the successful integration of wind generating resources into the power grids. To guarantee the reliability of forecasting, power curves need to be analyzed and a forecasting method used that compensates for the variability of wind power outputs. In this paper, we analyzed the reliability of power curves at each wind speed using logistic regression. To reduce wind power forecasting errors, we proposed a short-term wind power forecasting method using support vector machine (SVM) based on linear regression. Support vector machine is a type of supervised leaning and is used to recognize patterns and analyze data. The proposed method was verified by empirical data collected from a wind turbine located on Jeju Island. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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