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Energies 2018, 11(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010173

Optimal Control of Wind Farms for Coordinated TSO-DSO Reactive Power Management

1
Division Energy Economy and Grid Operation, Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (IWES), 34119 Kassel, Germany
2
Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
3
Institute of Electric Power Systems, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Abstract

The growing importance of renewable generation connected to distribution grids requires an increased coordination between transmission system operators (TSOs) and distribution system operators (DSOs) for reactive power management. This work proposes a practical and effective interaction method based on sequential optimizations to evaluate the reactive flexibility potential of distribution networks and to dispatch them along with traditional synchronous generators, keeping to a minimum the information exchange. A modular optimal power flow (OPF) tool featuring multi-objective optimization is developed for this purpose. The proposed method is evaluated for a model of a real German 110 kV grid with 1.6 GW of installed wind power capacity and a reduced order model of the surrounding transmission system. Simulations show the benefit of involving wind farms in reactive power support reducing losses both at distribution and transmission level. Different types of setpoints are investigated, showing the feasibility for the DSO to fulfill also individual voltage and reactive power targets over multiple connection points. Finally, some suggestions are presented to achieve a fair coordination, combining both TSO and DSO requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed generation; optimal power flow; reactive power control; voltage control; wind power grid integration; smart grids; transmission system; active distribution system; grid ancillary services distributed generation; optimal power flow; reactive power control; voltage control; wind power grid integration; smart grids; transmission system; active distribution system; grid ancillary services
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Stock, D.S.; Sala, F.; Berizzi, A.; Hofmann, L. Optimal Control of Wind Farms for Coordinated TSO-DSO Reactive Power Management. Energies 2018, 11, 173.

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