Special Issue "Advancements in Daylighting in Buildings"

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A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Richard Mistrick (Website)

Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Phone: 8148632086
Interests: lighting and daylighting system modeling and performance; integrated electric lighting photocontrol systems; building energy analysis; optical design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Daylighting in building is increasing in importance as a means of improving the interior environment for occupants, and as a means for saving energy through a reduction in the electric lighting power required during daylight hours. New tools and metrics that provide annual simulations of performance are changing the way design professionals evaluate these systems during the building design process. Assessment of system performance requires modeling tools to address dynamic daylight conditions, the activation of automatic or user-controlled shading devices at the daylight apertures, the performance of glazing materials, shading and other light redirecting devices. Annual daylighting metrics consider daylight penetration and distribution across a space over time, the layout and performance of lighting control systems, and the lighting quality within a space. System design, shading device features, and electric lighting control must consider the occupants’ preference for view, personal control, pleasantness of luminance patterns, and the elimination of unwanted direct and reflected glare, all of which require further study. This special issue focuses on recent advances in daylight modeling, metrics, equipment, design strategies, and human factors research that will lead to the creation of environments with improved daylighting systems performance in the future.

Papers that address modern daylighting tools, strategies, equipment, human factors research, and related areas that aim to improve the design, analysis and application of daylighting in buildings of all types are encouraged. We look forward to reviewing your contribution.

Dr. Richard Mistrick
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • daylighting
  • daylight modeling
  • daylighting metrics
  • integrated lighting control
  • photocontrol
  • daylight delivery systems
  • shading devices
  • daylight redirection
  • daylight harvesting
  • building energy
  • human factors in daylighting

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems
Buildings 2015, 5(2), 668-699; doi:10.3390/buildings5020668
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
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Abstract
As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off [...] Read more.
As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Daylighting in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Simulating Performance Risk for Lighting Retrofit Decisions
Buildings 2015, 5(2), 650-667; doi:10.3390/buildings5020650
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
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Abstract
In building retrofit projects, dynamic simulations are performed to simulate building performance. Uncertainty may negatively affect model calibration and predicted lighting energy savings, which increases the chance of default on performance-based contracts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a [...] Read more.
In building retrofit projects, dynamic simulations are performed to simulate building performance. Uncertainty may negatively affect model calibration and predicted lighting energy savings, which increases the chance of default on performance-based contracts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a simulation-based method that can analyze lighting performance risk in lighting retrofit decisions. The model uses a surrogate model, which is constructed by adaptively selecting sample points and generating approximation surfaces with fast computing time. The surrogate model is a replacement of the computation intensive process. A statistical method is developed to generate extreme weather profile based on the 20-year historical weather data. A stochastic occupancy model was created using actual occupancy data to generate realistic occupancy patterns. Energy usage of lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is simulated using EnergyPlus. The method can evaluate the influence of different risk factors (e.g., variation of luminaire input wattage, varying weather conditions) on lighting and HVAC energy consumption and lighting electricity demand. Probability distributions are generated to quantify the risk values. A case study was conducted to demonstrate and validate the methods. The surrogate model is a good solution for quantifying the risk factors and probability distribution of the building performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Daylighting in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle Daylight Design of Office Buildings: Optimisation of External Solar Shadings by Using Combined Simulation Methods
Buildings 2015, 5(2), 560-580; doi:10.3390/buildings5020560
Received: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrating daylight and energy performance with optimization into the design process has always been a challenge for designers. Most of the building environmental performance simulation tools require a considerable amount of time and iterations for achieving accurate results. Moreover the combination of [...] Read more.
Integrating daylight and energy performance with optimization into the design process has always been a challenge for designers. Most of the building environmental performance simulation tools require a considerable amount of time and iterations for achieving accurate results. Moreover the combination of daylight and energy performances has always been an issue, as different software packages are needed to perform detailed calculations. A simplified method to overcome both issues using recent advances in software integration is explored here. As a case study; the optimization of external shadings in a typical office space in Australia is presented. Results are compared against common solutions adopted as industry standard practices. Visual comfort and energy efficiency are analysed in an integrated approach. The DIVA (Design, Iterate, Validate and Adapt) plug-in for Rhinoceros/Grasshopper software is used as the main tool, given its ability to effectively calculate daylight metrics (using the Radiance/Daysim engine) and energy consumption (using the EnergyPlus engine). The optimization process is carried out parametrically controlling the shadings’ geometries. Genetic Algorithms (GA) embedded in the evolutionary solver Galapagos are adopted in order to achieve close to optimum results by controlling iteration parameters. The optimized result, in comparison with conventional design techniques, reveals significant enhancement of comfort levels and energy efficiency. Benefits and drawbacks of the proposed strategy are then discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Daylighting in Buildings)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms
Buildings 2015, 5(2), 467-496; doi:10.3390/buildings5020467
Received: 29 January 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. [...] Read more.
Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE) and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE). The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Daylighting in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle Computer Modeling of Daylight-Integrated Photocontrol of Electric Lighting Systems
Buildings 2015, 5(2), 449-466; doi:10.3390/buildings5020449
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
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Abstract
This article presents a variety of different approaches to both model and assess the performance of daylight-integrated electric lighting control systems. In these systems, the output of a controlled lighting zone is based on a light sensor reading and a calibrated control [...] Read more.
This article presents a variety of different approaches to both model and assess the performance of daylight-integrated electric lighting control systems. In these systems, the output of a controlled lighting zone is based on a light sensor reading and a calibrated control algorithm. Computer simulations can consider the simulated illuminance data generated from both the electric lighting system and a daylight delivery system whose performance is addressed using typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data. Photosensor signals and the operation of a control system’s dimming algorithms are also included. Methods and metrics for evaluating simulated performance for the purpose of making informed design decisions that lead to the best possible installed system performance are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Daylighting in Buildings)
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