Special Issue "Biosensors in Environmental Studies"

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A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nastaran Hashemi (Website)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2028 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Interests: microfluidics; optofluidics; bio-MEMS; biosensors; flow cytometry; diagnostics and therapeutics; renewable energy; physics of micro/nanoscale phenomena

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biosensors could be used to characterize the hazardous wastes affecting the environment through measurement of either specific chemicals or their biological effects. Information concerning the location, source and concentration of pollutants could be obtained using biosensors with faster field screening capabilities. It is also desired for these systems to be cost-effective.
The intention of this special issue is to focus on the latest advances in biosensors employed for environmental monitoring. We invite reviews and research articles with a broad scope covering bioavailability, toxicity, and multianalyte screening.

Prof. Dr. Nastaran Hashemi
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • environmental monitoring
  • microfluidics
  • immunoassay
  • optical detection
  • pollutants

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of Formaldehyde Biosensor for Determination of Formalin in Fish Samples; Malabar Red Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) and Longtail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol)
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 32; doi:10.3390/bios6030032
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
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Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an [...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors are widely recognized in biosensing devices due to the fact that gives a direct, reliable, and reproducible measurement within a short period. During bio-interaction process and the generation of electrons, it produces electrochemical signals which can be measured using an electrochemical detector. A formaldehyde biosensor was successfully developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM][Otf])), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and chitosan (CHIT), onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The developed formaldehyde biosensor was analyzed for sensitivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and detection limits. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator for increasing the electron transfer in the electrochemical cell. The developed biosensor measured the NADH electron from the NAD+ reduction at a potential of 0.4 V. Under optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method detected a wider linear range of formaldehyde concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm within 5 s, with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The proposed method was successfully detected with the presence of formalin in fish samples, Lutjanus malabaricus and Thunnus Tonggol. The proposed method is a simple, rapid, and highly accurate, compared to the existing technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
Open AccessArticle Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/bios6010004
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 16 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 25 January 2016
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Abstract
The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. [...] Read more.
The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Pixel Photon Counters for Optofluidic Characterization of Particles and Microalgae
Biosensors 2015, 5(2), 308-318; doi:10.3390/bios5020308
Received: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed an optofluidic biosensor to study microscale particles and different species of microalgae. The system is comprised of a microchannel with a set of chevron-shaped grooves. The chevrons allows for hydrodynamic focusing of the core stream in the center using [...] Read more.
We have developed an optofluidic biosensor to study microscale particles and different species of microalgae. The system is comprised of a microchannel with a set of chevron-shaped grooves. The chevrons allows for hydrodynamic focusing of the core stream in the center using a sheath fluid. The device is equipped with a new generation of highly sensitive photodetectors, multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), with high gain values and an extremely small footprint. Two different sizes of high intensity fluorescent microspheres and three different species of algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain 21 gr, Chlamydomonas suppressor, and Chlorella sorokiniana) were studied. The forward scattering emissions generated by samples passing through the interrogation region were carried through a multimode fiber, located in 135 degree with respect to the excitation fiber, and detected by a MPPC. The signal outputs obtained from each sample were collected using a data acquisition system and utilized for further statistical analysis. Larger particles or cells demonstrated larger peak height and width, and consequently larger peak area. The average signal output (integral of the peak) for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain 21 gr, Chlamydomonas suppressor, and Chlorella sorokiniana falls between the values found for the 3.2 and 10.2 μm beads. Different types of algae were also successfully characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
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Open AccessArticle Opening Study on the Development of a New Biosensor for Metal Toxicity Based on Pseudomonas fluorescens Pyoverdine
Biosensors 2013, 3(4), 385-399; doi:10.3390/bios3040385
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To date, different kinds of biosensing elements have been used effectively for environmental monitoring. Microbial cells seem to be well-suited for this task: they are cheap, adaptable to variable field conditions and give a measurable response to a broad number of chemicals. [...] Read more.
To date, different kinds of biosensing elements have been used effectively for environmental monitoring. Microbial cells seem to be well-suited for this task: they are cheap, adaptable to variable field conditions and give a measurable response to a broad number of chemicals. Among different pollutants, heavy metals are still a major problem for the environment. A reasonable starting point for the selection of a biorecognition element to develop a biosensor for metals could be that of a microorganism that exhibits good mechanisms to cope with metals. Pseudomonads are characterized by the secretion of siderophores (e.g., pyoverdine), low-molecular weight compounds that chelate Fe3+ during iron starvation. Pyoverdine is easily detected by colorimetric assay, and it is suitable for simple online measurements. In this work, in order to evaluate pyoverdine as a biorecognition element for metal detection, the influence of metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+), but also of temperature, pH and nutrients, on microbial growth and pyoverdine regulation has been studied in P. fluorescens. Each of these variables has been shown to influence the synthesis of siderophore: for instance, the lower the temperature, the higher the production of pyoverdine. Moreover, the concentration of pyoverdine produced in the presence of metals has been compared with the maximum allowable concentrations indicated in international regulations (e.g., 98/83/EC), and a correlation that could be useful to build a colorimetric biosensor has been observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Biosensors for Inorganic and Organic Arsenicals
Biosensors 2014, 4(4), 494-512; doi:10.3390/bios4040494
Received: 24 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed and is strongly associated with human health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To date, a number of biosensors for the detection of arsenic involving the coupling of biological [...] Read more.
Arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed and is strongly associated with human health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To date, a number of biosensors for the detection of arsenic involving the coupling of biological engineering and electrochemical techniques has been developed. The properties of whole-cell bacterial or cell-free biosensors are summarized in the present review with emphasis on their sensitivity and selectivity. Their limitations and future challenges are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors
Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 12; doi:10.3390/bios6020012
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the “real world” environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial [...] Read more.
Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the “real world” environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)

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