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Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/bios6010004

Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose

1
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
2
School of Medicine, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
3
Department of Metabolic Medicine, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, CV2 2DX UK
4
Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK
5
Rotherham General Hospital, Rotherham, S60 2UD, UK
6
Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nastaran Hashemi
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 16 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 25 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2631 KB, uploaded 25 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life. View Full-Text
Keywords: urinary stability; storage; electronic nose; ion mobility spectrometry; headspace analysis urinary stability; storage; electronic nose; ion mobility spectrometry; headspace analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Esfahani, S.; Sagar, N.M.; Kyrou, I.; Mozdiak, E.; O’Connell, N.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K.D.; Arasaradnam, R.P.; Covington, J.A. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose. Biosensors 2016, 6, 4.

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