Special Issue "Nanotech for Oil and Gas"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Zhixin Yu

Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger 4036, Norway
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials and nanotechnology for clean energy production; nanocatalysis: H2 production, CO2 conversion and utilization, biogas production and upgrading, syngas production, gas to Liquids, carbon nanomaterials synthesis and application; nano EOR, nano drilling fluids; CO2 capture and storage, CO2 EOR; gas conditioning and processing, H2S and CO2 cleaning
Guest Editor
Dr. Yingfang Zhou

School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pore scale modeling of multiphase flow in porous media; enhanced oil recovery (polymer flooding, low salinity flooding and CO2 flooding); reservoir simulation; characterization and development of unconventional reservoirs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research on nanotechnology applications in the oil and gas industry has been growing rapidly in the past decade, as is evidenced by the number of scientific articles published in the field. With oil and gas reserves harder to find, access, and produce, the pursuit of more game-changing technologies that can address the challenges of the industry has stimulated this growth. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its potential to revolutionize the oil and gas industry both upstream and downstream, including exploration, drilling, production, enhanced oil recovery, as well as refining processes.

Essentially, the industry has been part of nanotechnology since the beginning because oil reserves are really emulsions of oil, gas and water in the nano- and micro- scale. The aim of this Special Issue is to attract world-leading researchers to report their latest exciting research outcomes on nanotechnology and nanomaterials application in the oil and gas industry. The scope of the study could be, but not limited to, the fundamental aspects and applications of nanotechnology in hydrocarbon detection, drilling and hydraulic fracturing fluids, enhanced oil recovery, oil well cementing, corrosion inhibition, formation fines control, geology, etc. Multidisciplinary research work will be of particular interest. Original research papers, case histories, review articles, short communications are all welcome to contribute to this Special Issue. Authors are especially encouraged to submit their manuscripts which bridge the gaps between research, development and implementation.

Prof. Dr. Zhixin Yu
Dr. Yingfang Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanotechnology

  • Nanomaterials

  • Exploration

  • Drilling

  • Production

  • Enhanced oil recovery

  • Refining

  • Oil and gas

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Suppression Characteristics of NH4H2PO4/Red Mud Composite Powders on Methane Explosion
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091433
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
The composite powders composed of red mud (RM) and NH4H2PO4 (NH4H2PO4/RM) were successfully prepared by the anti-solvent method. The composition and structure of the NH4H2PO4/RM composite
[...] Read more.
The composite powders composed of red mud (RM) and NH4H2PO4 (NH4H2PO4/RM) were successfully prepared by the anti-solvent method. The composition and structure of the NH4H2PO4/RM composite powders were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and Thermogravimetry-Differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The analysis results indicate that the as-prepared samples are composed with uniform nanoparticles and possess the porous structure. The methane explosion suppression characteristics of the NH4H2PO4/RM composite powders were tested by a 20 L spherical explosion system and a 5 L pipe test system. The results show that the NH4H2PO4/RM composite powders possess considerable suppression properties on methane explosion. When the loading content of NH4H2PO4 reached 30%, the maximum pressure and the maximum pressure rise rate of methane explosion were decreased by 35.1% and 95.8%, respectively. When comparing with no powder addition, the time to reach the pressure peak was extended from 0.07 s to 0.50 s. The NH4H2PO4/RM composite powders presented a synergistic suppression effect between NH4H2PO4 and RM, which made it exhibit considerable suppression property than that of pure NH4H2PO4 or red mud powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Graphene Nanoplatelet and Silver Nanoparticle on the Rheological Properties of Water-Based Mud
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081386
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Water-based mud is known as an environmental-friendly drilling fluid system. The formulation of water-based mud is designed to have specific rheological properties under specific oil field conditions. In this study, graphene nanoplatelet and silver nanoparticle (nanosilver) were added to a water-based mud formulation
[...] Read more.
Water-based mud is known as an environmental-friendly drilling fluid system. The formulation of water-based mud is designed to have specific rheological properties under specific oil field conditions. In this study, graphene nanoplatelet and silver nanoparticle (nanosilver) were added to a water-based mud formulation in which they act as drilling mud additives. Rheological properties measurements and filtration tests were conducted for evaluating the influence of the added nanoparticles. The results showed that the graphene nanoplatelet and the nanosilver increased the plastic viscosity (PV) by up to 89.2% and 64.2%, respectively. Meanwhile, both the yield point (YP) and the fluid loss values were reduced. In addition, we believe this is the first result ever report where nanosilver is utilized for enhancing-enhanced water-based mud’s performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis of Pore and Permeability Characteristics of Coal by Low-Field NMR
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081374
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
On the basis of the complexity of the pore structure characteristics of a coal reservoir, coal samples with different ranks were selected to study the difference in pore structures and permeability using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry
[...] Read more.
On the basis of the complexity of the pore structure characteristics of a coal reservoir, coal samples with different ranks were selected to study the difference in pore structures and permeability using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and permeability measurement. Porosity and pore size distribution (PSD) above 20 nm can be analyzed by the improved NMR equation, and the results were basically consistent with that of SEM and MIP. The NMR spectra of the coal samples from the same location were close, but the difference between the coal samples from different locations was quite large, which indicated that the heterogeneity of a coal reservoir was strong. An empirical equation of movable fluid porosity was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the fluid migration characteristics of the coal reservoir, and the porosity of movable fluid mainly came from the contribution of fissures and micro-fissures. The average movable fluid porosity of the coal samples from the Chengzhuang (CZ) coal mine, Wuyang (WY) coal mine, and Yujialiang (YJL) coal mine was 1.37%, 0.67%, and 4.26%, respectively. Although the permeability is related to the NMR porosity and movable fluid porosity, it was difficult to establish a widely used mathematical equation correlating permeability and porosity based on the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Analysis of Micron-Scale and Nano-Scale Pore Throat Characteristics of Tight Sandstone Using Matlab
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081272
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Based on micro-scale casting thin sections, nano-scale SEM images, and the pore distribution map identified through a binary image in Matlab, the pore size distribution and pore throat coordination number of the strata of Upper Paleozoic He8 section tight sandstone in the southeastern
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Based on micro-scale casting thin sections, nano-scale SEM images, and the pore distribution map identified through a binary image in Matlab, the pore size distribution and pore throat coordination number of the strata of Upper Paleozoic He8 section tight sandstone in the southeastern Ordos Basin were quantitatively analyzed with the above experimental data. In combination with a high-pressure mercury injection experiment, the pore throat distribution, the pore throat ratio, and the relationships between the characteristics, parameters, and pore permeability were investigated clearly. The results show that the tight sandstone pore space in the study area is dominated by micron-sized intergranular pores, dissolved pores, and intragranular pores. The nano-scale pore throat consisted of clay minerals, intercrystalline pores, and the flake intergranular pores of overgrowth quartz grains. Kaolinite and illite intercrystalline pores occupy the pore space below 600 nm, while the ones above 800 nm are mainly dominated by the intergranular pores of overgrowth quartz grains, and the 600–800 nm ones are transitional zones. The permeability of tight sandstone increases with the average pore throat radius, sorting coefficient, median pore throat radius, and average pore throat number. The porosity is positively correlated with the average pore radius and the average pore throat coordination number, and negatively correlated with the median pore throat radius. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle A Fully Coupled Model for the Simulation of Gas Flow in Multiscale Shale Reservoirs Combining Multiple Effects
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071063
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Gas flow mechanisms in shale reservoirs with multiscale pores and fractures are extremely complex. In this study, a dual fracture framework model was adopted to describe gas flow in multiscale shale reservoirs. Gas flow through a shale reservoir occurs through both the shale
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Gas flow mechanisms in shale reservoirs with multiscale pores and fractures are extremely complex. In this study, a dual fracture framework model was adopted to describe gas flow in multiscale shale reservoirs. Gas flow through a shale reservoir occurs through both the shale matrix and hydraulic fractures. This study considered bulk phase and adsorbed gas flow in the shale matrix. Next, a series of partial theories were combined to derive a fully coupled model simulating gas flow in multiscale shale reservoirs: (1) fractal theory was adopted to obtain the pore distribution within shale reservoirs; (2) mechanical equilibrium equations were used to investigate the stress-sensitivity of permeability and porosity; and (3) a Langmuir adsorption model was applied to describe the effects of gas adsorption/desorption. The proposed model was validated using traditional models as well as field data on gas production from Marcellus Shale, and was subsequently applied to study variations of mass flux in various flow regimes with respect to reservoir pressure. We found that mass flux in the slip flow regime decreased at first and then increased with decreasing reservoir pressure, while in the continuum regime, Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion the mass flux decreased with decreasing reservoir pressure. Stress-sensitivity has a significant impact on bulk phase gas flow, while adsorption/desorption influence both the bulk phase gas flow and adsorbed gas flow. At high pressures, the impact of stress-sensitivity on total gas mass flux is greater than that of adsorption/desorption, while the reverse was true for low pressures. The proposed model shows promising applications for analyzing various gas flow regimes in multiscale pores/fractures, and accurately evaluating in situ apparent permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Particles Using an Anionic-Surfactant-Modified Clay and Their Friction Performance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060964
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
Polystyrene-organo-montmorillonite (PS-OMMT) nanocomposite particles were prepared via emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of montmorillonite modified with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS), and its tribological properties as an additive to polyalphaolefin (PAO) were tested. The results of Fourier transform infrared
[...] Read more.
Polystyrene-organo-montmorillonite (PS-OMMT) nanocomposite particles were prepared via emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of montmorillonite modified with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS), and its tribological properties as an additive to polyalphaolefin (PAO) were tested. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that SLS molecules resided in the montmorillonite (MMT) interlayer space. The effects of OMMT on the morphology and properties of the nanocomposites were also investigated. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrate that the presence of OMMT can effectively reduce the average molecular weight and average particle size of PS. XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the PS-OMMT nanocomposites indicate that exfoliated and intercalated structures form and that the MMT layers either are partly embedded inside the PS particles or remain on their surface. Compared with pure PS, the PS-OMMT nanocomposites possessed higher stability to thermal decomposition and higher glass transition temperatures. Adding nanocomposite particles reduces the friction coefficient, and thus, the antiwear properties of the PAO are significantly improved. The PS-OMMT-3 (3 wt % of OMMT based on styrene) particles have the best tribological performance and maintained a stable, very low coefficient of friction of 0.09. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle A Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry Method for Methane Diffusivity and Permeability Evaluation in Coals: A Comparative Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060860
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) has been utilized for decades to obtain the pore size, pore volume and pore structure of variable porous media including inorganic rocks and organic rock (e.g., shales and coals). Diffusivity and permeability are the two crucial parameters that control
[...] Read more.
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) has been utilized for decades to obtain the pore size, pore volume and pore structure of variable porous media including inorganic rocks and organic rock (e.g., shales and coals). Diffusivity and permeability are the two crucial parameters that control gas transport in coals. The main purpose of this work is to derive the CH4 effective gas diffusivity and permeability in different rank coals with vitrinite reflectance of 0.46–2.79% Ro,m by MIP. Furthermore, regular CH4 diffusivity and permeability measurements are conducted to compare with the results of the derived CH4 diffusivity and permeability with MIP data. In this work, CH4 diffusivity and permeability of different rank coals are acquired with established equations, which are basically in accordance with the experimental values. However, the coal rank (maximum vitrinitere flectance, Ro,m) exhibits no significant relation to the effective diffusion coefficient (De) and gas diffusivity (D′). The cementation factor (m values) varies from 2.03 to 2.46, which tends to exhibit a semi-consolidated structure for coals compared with other rocks (e.g., dolomite, limestone, sandstone and red brick). The results show that the cementation factor could be an important factor for gas flow in coals. The correlation of CH4 diffusivity to porosity and permeability of 12 coal samples were explored, and it appears that CH4 diffusivity exhibits an increasing trend with an increase of permeability, and two different exponential relationships respectively exist in diffusivity versus porosity and permeability versus porosity. Therefore, this study could be conducive to gas sequestration or gas production during enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Various Silica Nanofluids: Reduction of Fines Migrations and Surface Modification of Berea Sandstone
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121216
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work is aimed at addressing surface modification of berea sandstone by silica nanofluids (NFs). Three types of nanofluids were used: silica/deionized water (DIW), silica in DIW with a stabilizer fluid (3-Mercaptopropyl Trimethoxysilane) and sulfonate-functionalized silica in DIW. Core flood studies showed that
[...] Read more.
This work is aimed at addressing surface modification of berea sandstone by silica nanofluids (NFs). Three types of nanofluids were used: silica/deionized water (DIW), silica in DIW with a stabilizer fluid (3-Mercaptopropyl Trimethoxysilane) and sulfonate-functionalized silica in DIW. Core flood studies showed that application of silica nanoparticles (NPs) improved water injectivity in sandstone. The change in the measured zeta potential indicated surface modification of sandstone by application of NPs. Computation of the surface forces showed that the modified berea sandstone has net attractive potential with fines (obtained from water/rock interaction) leading to reduction of fines migration, hence improvement of water injectivity. It was also observed that the silica NPs have greater affinity to adhere/adsorb on quartz surfaces than kaolinite in berea core. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope imaging and isothermal static adsorption tests. Although the stabilizing of NFs almost did not reduce the fine migration, as was qualitatively indicated by the pressure drop, it enhanced the NPs adsorption on the minerals as obtained by isothermal static adsorption tests. The reduction of fines migration due surface modification by silica NP suggests that NPs can be utilized to overcome the problem of formation damage induced during low salinity flooding in sandstones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A State-of-the-Art Review of Nanoparticles Application in Petroleum with a Focus on Enhanced Oil Recovery
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060871
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry has been growing rapidly in the past decade, as evidenced by the number of scientific articles published in the field. With oil and gas reserves harder to find, access, and produce, the pursuit
[...] Read more.
Research on nanotechnology application in the oil and gas industry has been growing rapidly in the past decade, as evidenced by the number of scientific articles published in the field. With oil and gas reserves harder to find, access, and produce, the pursuit of more game-changing technologies that can address the challenges of the industry has stimulated this growth. Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the petroleum industry both upstream and downstream, including exploration, drilling, production, and enhanced oil recovery (EOR), as well as refinery processes. It provides a wide range of alternatives for technologies and materials to be utilized in the petroleum industry. Nanoscale materials in various forms such as solid composites, complex fluids, and functional nanoparticle-fluid combinations are key to the new technological advances. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art review on the application of nanoparticles and technology in the petroleum industry, and focuses on enhanced oil recovery. We briefly summarize nanotechnology application in exploration and reservoir characterization, drilling and completion, production and stimulation, and refinery. Thereafter, this paper focuses on the application of nanoparticles in EOR. The different types of nanomaterials, e.g., silica, aluminum oxides, iron oxide, nickel oxide, titanium oxide, zinc oxide, zirconium oxide, polymers, and carbon nanotubes that have been studied in EOR are discussed with respect to their properties, their performance, advantages, and disadvantages. We then elaborate upon the parameters that will affect the performance of nanoparticles in EOR, and guidelines for promising recovery factors are emphasized. The mechanisms of the nanoparticles in the EOR processes are then underlined, such as wettability alteration, interfacial tension reduction, disjoining pressure, and viscosity control. The objective of this review is to present a wide range of knowledge and expertise related to the nanotechnology application in the petroleum industry in general, and the EOR process in particular. The challenges and future research directions for nano-EOR are pinpointed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotech for Oil and Gas)
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