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Beverages, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessEditorial Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
In the current Special Issue, numerous and different aspects related to milk, an important component of a well-balanced diet, are presented.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Volatile Components of Varietal English Wines Using Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Aroma is an important property of wine and it can be influenced significantly by enological practices. The aim of this work was, by use of stir bar sorptive extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE/GC-MS), to compare semi-quantitative concentrations of the volatile constituents of stainless steel
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Aroma is an important property of wine and it can be influenced significantly by enological practices. The aim of this work was, by use of stir bar sorptive extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE/GC-MS), to compare semi-quantitative concentrations of the volatile constituents of stainless steel tank-fermented/matured Huxelrebe, Ortega, Schönburger and Siegerrebe varietal wines from a commercial English vineyard, with corresponding wines produced by oak cask (‘barrel’) fermentation/maturation. Aroma profiles of tank and barrel wines were different, with more volatiles detected and net concentrations being higher in barrel wines. Long chain ethyl carboxylate esters were generally more abundant in barrel wines, whereas acetate esters were generally more prominent in tank wines. By conducting a short (~7 month) maturation period in secondhand (third or fourth fill) casks, it was possible to make wines with more complex aromas, but without obvious oak aroma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Some Selected Cocoa Beverages in Nigeria
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17
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This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17 OCP residues using gas chromatography coupled with an Electron Captured Detector (GC-ECD) after extraction and silica-gel clean-up. The study reveals the presence of ten OCP residues in the cocoa beverages, with a concentration range from not detected ND—0.256 mg/kg, while α-BHC, β-BHC, methoxychlor, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin, endrin aldehyde, and endosulfan sulphate were not detected in any of the analysed samples. The contamination pattern of OCPs in the beverages was in the following order: Ovaltine > Milo > Cadbury-choco > Bournvita > Cowbell-coffee > Richoco > Oluji, with p,p′-DDT being the most frequently found pesticide. Heptachlor and endosulfan II showeda residual level above the European Union (EU) Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs) in only one sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Powder)
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Open AccessArticle Elaboration and Characterization of Apple Nectars Supplemented with Araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata Mac Vaugh—Myrtaceae)
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are known as sources of nutritionally important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, and Brazilian biodiversity may be hiding many underexplored fruits with potential health benefits. In this study, we formulated a fruit-based beverage by supplementing known amounts of freeze-dried araçá-boi
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Fruits and vegetables are known as sources of nutritionally important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, and Brazilian biodiversity may be hiding many underexplored fruits with potential health benefits. In this study, we formulated a fruit-based beverage by supplementing known amounts of freeze-dried araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata) (FD) to a commercial apple nectar in order to evaluate the impact in terms of nutritional (level of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) and sensory parameters. The best acceptance was evidenced for the apple nectar supplemented with 1 g/L of FD, while no statistically significant changes were obtained for non-supplemented apple nectar and apple nectar supplemented with 5 or 10 g/L FD. Lower acceptances for apple nectars supplemented with 15, 20 or 30 g/L FD were suggested to be caused by an increase in acidity. In general, total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, TEAC and ORAC) increased with the supplementation level, although not always a statistically significant difference was observed. When compared to control (non-supplemented), the apple nectar supplemented with 10 g/L FD presented a significant increase in total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (except for ORAC assay), and therefore this level of supplementation was considered ideal, considering both nutritional and sensory properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vino Veritas? An Alternative Story of European Convergence
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
While some European antagonists claim that united Europe is a utopia, grounded on mental and cultural discrepancies as well as aversion to changes of any kind, this paper challenges this cultural heterogeneity by looking at the history of the EU from the perspective
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While some European antagonists claim that united Europe is a utopia, grounded on mental and cultural discrepancies as well as aversion to changes of any kind, this paper challenges this cultural heterogeneity by looking at the history of the EU from the perspective of alcohol consumption and its development. By using WHO data over the last 50 years I show how consumption patterns of European countries evolved over time, in terms of volumes and composition of alcohol intake per-capita, outlining the major tendencies of the (converging) European market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Market)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Australian Beers Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Classification of a series of Australian beers was performed using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy and emission-excitation matrices based on the IR fingerprint regions. The results indicate that synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust and valuable method to discriminate between Australian lager beers
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Classification of a series of Australian beers was performed using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy and emission-excitation matrices based on the IR fingerprint regions. The results indicate that synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust and valuable method to discriminate between Australian lager beers based on their brand name. In addition, a subsequent spoiling study revealed that when beers are opened and stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks, the results demonstrated that the beers were not statistically different. The methods and techniques outlined may be of interest to brewing companies and microbrewers to determine the unique beer spectrum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle LC–MS/MS and UPLC–UV Evaluation of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanidins during Rabbiteye Blueberry Juice Processing
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor
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Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor anthocyanins were identified and semi-quantified at various steps through the process. Ten anthocyanins were identified, including 5 arabinoside and 5 pyrannoside anthocyanins. Three minor anthocyanins were also identified, which apparently have not been previously reported in rabbiteye blueberries. These were delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside), cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside), and petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside). Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside) significantly increased 50% after pressing. The five known anthocyanidins—cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin—were also quantitated using UPLC–UV. Raw berries and press cake contained the highest anthocyanidin contents and contribute to the value and interest of press cake for use in other food and non-food products. Losses of 75.7% after pressing and 12% after pasteurization were determined for anthocyanidins during not-from-concentrate juice processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During
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The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size), the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Consumers have recently shown a preference for natural food products and ingredients and within that framework, their interest in consuming raw drinking milk has been highlighted, claiming nutritional, organoleptic and health benefits. However, a public debate has simultaneously emerged about the actual risks
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Consumers have recently shown a preference for natural food products and ingredients and within that framework, their interest in consuming raw drinking milk has been highlighted, claiming nutritional, organoleptic and health benefits. However, a public debate has simultaneously emerged about the actual risks and benefits of direct human consumption of raw milk. This paper compares the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of raw and heat-treated milk, to evaluate the real risks and benefits of its consumption. In detail, it provides an updated overview of the main microbiological risks of raw milk consumption, especially related to the presence of pathogens and the main outputs of risk assessment models are reported. After introducing the key aspects of most commonly used milk heat-treatments, the paper also discusses the effects such technologies have on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of milk. An insight into the scientific evidence behind the claimed protective effects of raw milk consumption in lactose-intolerant subjects and against the onset of asthma and allergy disorders in children is provided. The emergence of novel milk processing technologies, such as ohmic heating, microwave heating, high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound and microfiltration is also presented as an alternative to common thermal treatments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Guidelines for Assessing Enological and Statistical Significance of Wine Tasters’ Binary Judgments
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an oenological framework. The model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to
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The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an oenological framework. The model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to fully control in the typical oenological investigation. It is shown that results that are judged to be oenologically significant are uniformly judged to be statistically significant as well, whether the level of Wine Taster agreement is set at 70% (Fair); 80% (Good), or 90% (Excellent). However, in a number of instances, results that were statistically significant were not enologically significant by standards that are widely accepted and utilized. This finding is consistent with the bio-statistical fact that given a sufficiently large sample size, even the most trivial of results will prove to be statistically significant. Consistent with expectations, multiple patterns of 80% (Good) and 90% (Excellent) agreement tended to be both statistically and enologically significant. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impact of Closure Type on Wine Ratings and Mood
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
We report on a preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the sound of the closure on the taste of wine. Given that people hold certain beliefs around the taste/quality of wines presented in bottles having different closure types, we expected that
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We report on a preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the sound of the closure on the taste of wine. Given that people hold certain beliefs around the taste/quality of wines presented in bottles having different closure types, we expected that the sound of opening might influence people’s wine ratings. In particular, if participants hear a cork being pulled vs. the sound of a screw-cap bottle being opened then these two sounds will likely set different expectations that may then affect people’s judgment of the taste/quality of the wine that they are rating. In order to test this hypothesis, 140 people based in the UK (and of varying degrees of wine expertise) rated two wine samples along four scales, three relating to the wine and one relating to celebratory mood. The results demonstrated that the sound of a bottle being opened did indeed impact ratings. In particular, the quality of the wine was rated as higher, its appropriateness for a celebratory occasion, and the celebratory mood of the participant was also higher following the sound of the cork pop. These results add to the literature demonstrating that the sounds of opening/preparation of food and beverage products can exert a significant influence over the sensory and hedonic aspects of people’s subsequent tasting experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Acid and Volatiles of Commercially-Available Lambic Beers
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Lambic beer is the oldest style of beer still being produced in the Western world using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer prepared by mixing young (one year) and older (two to three years) beers. Little is known about the
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Lambic beer is the oldest style of beer still being produced in the Western world using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer prepared by mixing young (one year) and older (two to three years) beers. Little is known about the volatiles and semi-volatiles found in commercial samples of gueuze lambic beers. SPME was used to extract the volatiles from nine different brands of lambic beer. GC-MS was used for the separation and identification of the compounds extracted with SPME. The pH and color were measured using standard procedures. A total of 50 compounds were identified in the nine brands. Seventeen of the 50 compounds identified have been previously identified. The compounds identified included a number of different chemical groups such as acids, alcohols, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and esters. Ethyl acetate, 4-ethylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol are known by-products of the yeast, Brettanomyces, which is normally a spoilage microorganism in beer and wine, but important for the flavor characteristics of lambic beer. There were no differences in pH, but there were differences in color between the beer samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Different Variables for the Development of a Cucumber-Based Blended Herbal Beverage
Received: 19 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Cucumber is a nutritious vegetable containing a large amount of nutrients. Due to its numerous health benefits, and even after the blind taste test, it can be used as a beverage by blending it with other suitable juices. Therefore, an attempt has been
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Cucumber is a nutritious vegetable containing a large amount of nutrients. Due to its numerous health benefits, and even after the blind taste test, it can be used as a beverage by blending it with other suitable juices. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the present study for the development of a cucumber-based blended herbal beverage using sugarcane juice, citric acid, mint and coriander extract (30:30:30) along with salt (white salt:black salt 1:1) at varying concentrations using the response surface methodology. The physicochemical (TSS, titratable acidity, pH, reducing sugars, total sugars, total proteins, total phenols, ascorbic acid, tannins and antioxidant activity) and sensory analysis revealed that the best blend was obtained with a sugarcane juice concentration (of 30.14%, a salt concentration of 1.5%, citric acid, mint and a coriander extract concentration of 1%. It is apparent from the study that cucumber juice can be successfully blended with sugarcane juice to enhance its sensory properties, as well as the phytochemical potential with 0.953 desirability, which will open a new door in the beverage industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Beverage, “Shalgam”
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the
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Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the outer shells of boiled dried wheat for processing), salt, water, purple carrot, turnip, and sometimes red beet is used. The traditional method of production can take 10–12 days. Commercial production takes 4–5 days. Shalgam is a probiotic food and a good source of nutrients. It helps regulate the pH of the digestive system. It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron. People also use it as a medicine because of its antiseptic agents. Shalgam consumption should be increased and become worldwide. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Probiotic L. rhamnosus GG as a Protective Culture in Sea Buckthorn-Based Beverage
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) as a protective culture when present in a food system. A non-fermented sea buckthorn-based beverage was developed. To meet the required criteria for probiotic
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The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) as a protective culture when present in a food system. A non-fermented sea buckthorn-based beverage was developed. To meet the required criteria for probiotic beverage (viable count of 8 log CFU mL−1), the acidic juice had to be supplemented with whey protein concentrate (WPC). The obtained beverage had a shelf life of two weeks. Furthermore, the inhibitory potential of Lactobacillus-fortified-WPC-supplemented juice matrix was evaluated against E. coli (ATCC 25922) which is a major agent responsible for food contamination and shelf spoilage. Results indicated that the fortification of beverage with L. rhamnosus GG appeared to create an effective hurdle for multiplication of E. coli in the sea buckthorn-WPC system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reactions to a Low-Fat Milk Social Media Intervention in the US: The Choose 1% Milk Campaign
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Social media has increased in importance as a primary source of health communication but has received little academic attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Facebook comments made in response to a five-week statewide social
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(1) Background: Social media has increased in importance as a primary source of health communication but has received little academic attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Facebook comments made in response to a five-week statewide social media intervention promoting use of 1% low-fat milk. Formative research identified health messages to promote, and 16 health messages consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans were posted. During the intervention, 454 Facebook users posted 489 relevant comments; (2) Methods: The themes of user comments were identified using mixed-methods with qualitative identification of themes supplemented by cluster analysis; (3) Results: Six broad themes with 19 sub-themes are identified: (a) sugar, fat, and nutrients, (b) defiant, (c) watery milk, (d) personal preference, (e) evidence and logic, and (f) pure and natural; (4) The subject of milk is surprisingly controversial, a contested terrain in the mind of the consumer with a variety of competing perspectives that influence consumption. Public reactions to a social media nutrition education intervention are useful in understanding audience psychographics toward the desired behavior, require continual efforts to monitor and manage the social media campaign, but provide an opportunity to maximize the utility of real-time interactions with your audience. Full article
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