Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Electronics, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-34
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle A Soft Sensor Development for the Rotational Speed Measurement of an Electric Propeller
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040094
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades, micro air vehicles driven by electric propellers have become a hot topic, and developed quickly. The performance of the vehicles depends on the rotational speed of propellers, thus, improving the accuracy of rotational speed measurement is beneficial to the vehicle’s
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, micro air vehicles driven by electric propellers have become a hot topic, and developed quickly. The performance of the vehicles depends on the rotational speed of propellers, thus, improving the accuracy of rotational speed measurement is beneficial to the vehicle’s performance. This paper presents the development of a soft sensor for the rotational speed measurement of an electric propeller. An adaptive learning algorithm is derived for the soft sensor by using Popov hyperstability theory, based on which a one-step-delay adaptive learning algorithm is further proposed to solve the implementation problem of the soft sensor. It is important to note that only the input signal and the commutation instant of the motor are employed as inputs in the algorithm, which makes it possible to be easily implemented in real-time. The experimental test results have demonstrated the learning performance and the accuracy of the soft sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Systems/Vehicles (UAS/V) and Drones)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Photonic Structure-Integrated Two-Dimensional Material Optoelectronics
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040093
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development and unique properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene and transition metal dichalcogenides enable them to become intriguing candidates for future optoelectronic applications. To maximize the potential of 2D material-based optoelectronics, various photonic structures are integrated to form
[...] Read more.
The rapid development and unique properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene and transition metal dichalcogenides enable them to become intriguing candidates for future optoelectronic applications. To maximize the potential of 2D material-based optoelectronics, various photonic structures are integrated to form photonic structure/2D material hybrid systems so that the device performance can be manipulated in controllable ways. Here, we first introduce the photocurrent-generation mechanisms of 2D material-based optoelectronics and their performance. We then offer an overview and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of hybrid systems, where 2D material optoelectronics are integrated with photonic structures, especially plasmonic nanostructures, photonic waveguides and crystals. By combining with those photonic structures, the performance of 2D material optoelectronics can be further enhanced, and on the other side, a high-performance modulator can be achieved by electrostatically tuning 2D materials. Finally, 2D material-based photodetector can also become an efficient probe to learn the light-matter interactions of photonic structures. Those hybrid systems combine the advantages of 2D materials and photonic structures, providing further capacity for high-performance optoelectronics. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Low Power High-Efficiency Shift Register Using Implicit Pulse-Triggered Flip-Flop in 130 nm CMOS Process for a Cryptographic RFID Tag
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040092
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 20 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
PDF Full-text (4203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The shift register is a type of sequential logic circuit which is mostly used for storing digital data or the transferring of data in the form of binary numbers in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications to improve the security of the system. A
[...] Read more.
The shift register is a type of sequential logic circuit which is mostly used for storing digital data or the transferring of data in the form of binary numbers in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications to improve the security of the system. A power-efficient shift register utilizing a new flip-flop with an implicit pulse-triggered structure is presented in this article. The proposed flip-flop has features of high performance and low power. It is composed of a sampling circuit implemented by five transistors, a C-element for rise and fall paths, and a keeper stage. The speed is enhanced by executing four clocked transistors together with a transition condition technique. The simulation result confirms that the proposed topology consumes the lowest amounts of power of 30.1997 and 22.7071 nW for parallel in –parallel out (PIPO) and serial in –serial out (SISO) shift register respectively covering 22 µm2 chip area. The overall design consist of only 16 transistors and is simulated in 130 nm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology with a 1.2 V power supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Energetic Stabilities, Structural and Electronic Properties of Monolayer Graphene Doped with Boron and Nitrogen Atoms
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040091
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The structural, energetic, and electronic properties of single-layer graphene doped with boron and nitrogen atoms with varying doping concentrations and configurations have been investigated here via first-principles density functional theory calculations. It was found that the band gap increases with an increase in
[...] Read more.
The structural, energetic, and electronic properties of single-layer graphene doped with boron and nitrogen atoms with varying doping concentrations and configurations have been investigated here via first-principles density functional theory calculations. It was found that the band gap increases with an increase in doping concentration, whereas the energetic stability of the doped systems decreases with an increase in doping concentration. It was observed that both the band gaps and the cohesive energies also depend on the atomic configurations considered for the substitutional dopants. Stability was found to be higher in N-doped graphene systems as compared to B-doped graphene systems. The electronic structures of B- and N-doped graphene systems were also found to be strongly influenced by the positioning of the dopant atoms in the graphene lattice. The systems with dopant atoms at alternate sublattices have been found to have the lowest cohesive energies and therefore form the most stable structures. These results indicate an ability to adjust the band gap as required using B and N atoms according to the choice of the supercell, i.e., the doping density and substitutional dopant sites, which could be useful in the design of graphene-based electronic and optical devices. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Characterizing Energy per Job in Cloud Applications
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040090
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy efficiency is a major research focus in sustainable development and is becoming even more critical in information technology (IT) with the introduction of new technologies, such as cloud computing and big data, that attract more business users and generate more data to
[...] Read more.
Energy efficiency is a major research focus in sustainable development and is becoming even more critical in information technology (IT) with the introduction of new technologies, such as cloud computing and big data, that attract more business users and generate more data to be processed. While many proposals have been presented to optimize power consumption at a system level, the increasing heterogeneity of current workloads requires a finer analysis in the application level to enable adaptive behaviors and in order to reduce the global energy usage. In this work, we focus on batch applications running on virtual machines in the context of data centers. We analyze the application characteristics, model their energy consumption and quantify the energy per job. The analysis focuses on evaluating the efficiency of applications in terms of performance and energy consumed per job, in particular when shared resources are used and the hosts on which the virtual machines are running are heterogeneous in terms of energy profiles, with the aim of identifying the best combinations in the use of resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving in Data Centers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Operating Wireless Sensor Nodes without Energy Storage: Experimental Results with Transient Computing
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040089
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy harvesting is increasingly used for powering wireless sensor network nodes. Recently, it has been suggested to combine it with the concept of transient computing whereby the wireless sensor nodes operate without energy storage capabilities. This new combined approach brings benefits, for instance
[...] Read more.
Energy harvesting is increasingly used for powering wireless sensor network nodes. Recently, it has been suggested to combine it with the concept of transient computing whereby the wireless sensor nodes operate without energy storage capabilities. This new combined approach brings benefits, for instance ultra-low power nodes and reduced maintenance, but also raises new challenges, foremost dealing with nodes that may be left without power for various time periods. Although transient computing has been demonstrated on microcontrollers, reports on experiments with wireless sensor nodes are still scarce in the literature. In this paper, we describe our experiments with solar, thermal, and RF energy harvesting sources that are used to power sensor nodes (including wireless ones) without energy storage, but with transient computing capabilities. The results show that the selected solar and thermal energy sources can operate both the wired and wireless nodes without energy storage, whereas in our specific implementation, the developed RF energy source can only be used for the selected nodes without wireless connectivity. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle GPGPU Accelerated Deep Object Classification on a Heterogeneous Mobile Platform
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040088
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep convolutional neural networks achieve state-of-the-art performance in image classification. The computational and memory requirements of such networks are however huge, and that is an issue on embedded devices due to their constraints. Most of this complexity derives from the convolutional layers and
[...] Read more.
Deep convolutional neural networks achieve state-of-the-art performance in image classification. The computational and memory requirements of such networks are however huge, and that is an issue on embedded devices due to their constraints. Most of this complexity derives from the convolutional layers and in particular from the matrix multiplications they entail. This paper proposes a complete approach to image classification providing common layers used in neural networks. Namely, the proposed approach relies on a heterogeneous CPU-GPU scheme for performing convolutions in the transform domain. The Compute Unified Device Architecture(CUDA)-based implementation of the proposed approach is evaluated over three different image classification networks on a Tegra K1 CPU-GPU mobile processor. Experiments show that the presented heterogeneous scheme boasts a 50× speedup over the CPU-only reference and outperforms a GPU-based reference by 2×, while slashing the power consumption by nearly 30%. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Guided Modes in a Double-Well Asymmetric Potential of a Graphene Waveguide
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040087
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The analogy between the electron wave nature in graphene electronics and the electromagnetic waves in dielectrics has suggested a series of optical-like phenomena, which is of great importance for graphene-based electronic devices. In this paper, we propose an asymmetric double-well potential on graphene
[...] Read more.
The analogy between the electron wave nature in graphene electronics and the electromagnetic waves in dielectrics has suggested a series of optical-like phenomena, which is of great importance for graphene-based electronic devices. In this paper, we propose an asymmetric double-well potential on graphene as an electronic waveguide to confine the graphene electrons. The guided modes in this graphene waveguide are investigated using a modified transfer matrix method. It is found that there are two types of guided modes. The first kind is confined in one well, which is similar to the asymmetric quantum well graphene waveguide. The second kind can appear in two potential wells with double-degeneracy. Characteristics of all the possible guide modes are presented. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Offshore Measurement System for Wave Power—Using Current Loop Feedback
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040086
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
PDF Full-text (8800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the design and testing of a measurement system for wave power generators. The work is part of a project to build a robust and cheap measurement system for offshore monitoring of wave power farms. Due to the harsh offshore environment,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and testing of a measurement system for wave power generators. The work is part of a project to build a robust and cheap measurement system for offshore monitoring of wave power farms. Due to the harsh offshore environment, low accessibility and high cost for installation and maintenance, it is of key importance to minimize power consumption, complexity and cost of each measurement unit. For the first prototype, the objective was to measure voltage, current and translator position inside the linear wave power generator. For this, two printed circuit boards (PCBs) were developed, using a two wire current loop transmitter setup. They were tested separately and in a three phase setup inside a wave power generator during onshore tests. To ensure stability, speed and accuracy in the signal transfer, the PCBs were tested for linearity, frequency response and step response. In addition, power consumption was measured, for operational time evaluation. Results show good agreement between expected and measured performance, with an input range of ±1560 V and ±420 A for alternating current measurements and a bandwidth of 10 kHz and 7 kHz, for voltage and current measurements, respectively. The power consumption was measured to 0.5 W for each measurement unit, at 24 V feed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle On the Implementation of the IEC 61850 Standard: Will Different Manufacturer Devices Behave Similarly under Identical Conditions?
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040085
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Standardization in smart grid communications is necessary to facilitate complex operations of modern power system functions. However, the strong coupling between the cyber and physical domains of the contemporary grid exposes the system to vulnerabilities and thus places more burden on standards’ developers.
[...] Read more.
Standardization in smart grid communications is necessary to facilitate complex operations of modern power system functions. However, the strong coupling between the cyber and physical domains of the contemporary grid exposes the system to vulnerabilities and thus places more burden on standards’ developers. As such, standards need to be continuously assessed for reliability and are expected to be implemented properly on field devices. However, the actual implementation of common standards varies between vendors, which may lead to different behaviors of the devices even if present under similar conditions. The work in this paper tested the implementation of the International Electro-technical Commission’s Generic Object Oriented Substation Event GOOSE (IEC 61850 GOOSE) messaging protocol on commercial Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and the open source libiec61850 library—also used in commercial devices—which showed different behaviors in identical situations. Based on the test results and analysis of some features of the IEC 61850 GOOSE protocol itself, this paper proposes guidelines and recommendations for proper implementation of the standard functionalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle RFID Reader Anticollision Protocols for Dense and Mobile Deployments
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040084
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development of RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology has allowed its large adoption and led to increasing deployments of RFID solutions in diverse environments under varying scenarios and constraints. The nature of these constraints ranges from the amount to the mobility of
[...] Read more.
The rapid development of RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology has allowed its large adoption and led to increasing deployments of RFID solutions in diverse environments under varying scenarios and constraints. The nature of these constraints ranges from the amount to the mobility of the readers deployed, which in turn highly affects the quality of the RFID system, causing reading collisions. Although several solutions were proposed to engage the issue of reading collision, few were ever concerned with the densification and/or mobility of readers. This paper proposes two distributed TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) approaches designed to reduce these collisions through local coordination between neighboring devices for different scenarios tested here. The first proposal is based on a reservation phase organized between readers with different priority levels given to readers depending on their previous success. The second one takes advantage of the particular case of RFID collisions, allowing a local and mutual decision of each reader to access or not tags in their vicinity. Simulations were run over different stressful environments in terms of tag/reader density and mobility, proving that our proposals achieved the best performance in terms of throughput, collision avoidance and coverage delay when compared to other collision reducing schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RFID Systems and Applications)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Stability Analysis of Quantum-Dot Spin-VCSELs
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040083
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) and vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VECSELs) are of interest since their output polarization can be manipulated by spin-selective pumping, either optical or electrical. These devices, using quantum dot (QD) material for the active region, have shown instability (periodic
[...] Read more.
Spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) and vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VECSELs) are of interest since their output polarization can be manipulated by spin-selective pumping, either optical or electrical. These devices, using quantum dot (QD) material for the active region, have shown instability (periodic oscillations) and polarization switching in previous theoretical simulations based on a rate equation model. It has been recognized that the polarization switching occurs between two possible sets of solutions, termed here in-phase and out-of-phase. The present contribution seeks to give enhanced understanding of these behaviors by applying a stability analysis to the system of equations used for such simulations. The results indicate that the choice of in-phase and out-of-phase solutions that appear in a time-dependent simulation is determined by the condition that the corresponding steady-state solutions are stable against small perturbations. The stability analysis is shown to be a valuable theoretical tool for future study of spin-V(E)SELs in the context of understanding and guiding future experimental research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin Optoelectronics)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Gaussian Mixture Modeling for Detecting Integrity Attacks in Smart Grids
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040082
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
PDF Full-text (1099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thematics focusing on inserting intelligence in cyber-physical critical infrastructures (CI) have been receiving a lot of attention in the recent years. This paper presents a methodology able to differentiate between the normal state of a system composed of interdependent infrastructures and states
[...] Read more.
The thematics focusing on inserting intelligence in cyber-physical critical infrastructures (CI) have been receiving a lot of attention in the recent years. This paper presents a methodology able to differentiate between the normal state of a system composed of interdependent infrastructures and states that appear to be normal but the system (or parts of it) has been compromised. The system under attack seems to operate properly since the associated measurements are simply a variation of the normal ones created by the attacker, and intended to mislead the operator while the consequences may be of catastrophic nature. Here, we propose a holistic modeling scheme based on Gaussian mixture models estimating the probability density function of the parameters coming from linear time invariant (LTI) models. LTI models are approximating the relationships between the datastreams coming from the CI. The experimental platform includes a power grid simulator of the IEEE 30 bus model controlled by a cyber network platform. Subsequently, we implemented a wide range of integrity attacks (replay, ramp, pulse, scaling, and random) with different intensity levels. An extensive experimental campaign was designed and we report satisfying detection results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modelling and Daisy Chaining Control Allocation of a Multirotor Helicopter with a Single Tilting Rotor
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040081
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
PDF Full-text (5323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the development and implementation of a single tilting rotor multirotor helicopter. A single tilting rotor multirotor helicopter is proposed that allows for decoupled lateral acceleration and attitude states. A dynamics model of the proposed multirotor helicopter is established to enable
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the development and implementation of a single tilting rotor multirotor helicopter. A single tilting rotor multirotor helicopter is proposed that allows for decoupled lateral acceleration and attitude states. A dynamics model of the proposed multirotor helicopter is established to enable control system development. A control system architecture and daisy chaining-based control allocation scheme is developed and implemented. The control architecture facilitates the control of decoupled lateral accelerations and attitudes. Further, a computational and experimental analysis is undertaken and offers evidence that the proposed multirotor helicopter and control system architecture enables the multirotor helicopter to achieve lateral accelerations without requiring attitude actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Systems/Vehicles (UAS/V) and Drones)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Optical Orientation and Inverse Spin Hall Effect as Effective Tools to Investigate Spin-Dependent Diffusion
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040080
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we address optical orientation, a process consisting in the excitation of spin polarized electrons across the gap of a semiconductor. We show that the combination of optical orientation with spin-dependent scattering leading to the inverse spin-Hall effect, i.e., to the
[...] Read more.
In this work we address optical orientation, a process consisting in the excitation of spin polarized electrons across the gap of a semiconductor. We show that the combination of optical orientation with spin-dependent scattering leading to the inverse spin-Hall effect, i.e., to the conversion of a spin current into an electrical signal, represents a powerful tool to generate and detect spin currents in solids. We consider a few examples where these two phenomena together allow addressing the spin-dependent transport properties across homogeneous samples or metal/semiconductor Schottky junctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin Optoelectronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top