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Cosmetics, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Editorial on Special Issue “Cosmetic Safety: Ingredients, Type of Reactions Undesirable Effects, Cosmetovigilance”
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010008
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2016
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010006
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Relative Free Radicals Scavenging and Enzymatic Activities of Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula Extracts: Importance for Cosmetic, Food and Medicinal Applications
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010003
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Cassia fistula L. extracts have great potential as food, medicinal, or cosmetic ingredients. The aim of our study was to assess their relative antioxidant activities and key enzymatic activities. Thereby, H. rhamnoides’ fruit and C. fistula’s pod extracts were
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Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Cassia fistula L. extracts have great potential as food, medicinal, or cosmetic ingredients. The aim of our study was to assess their relative antioxidant activities and key enzymatic activities. Thereby, H. rhamnoides’ fruit and C. fistula’s pod extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometry, based on their respective total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) ferric-reducing power, capacity in nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging, as well as on their β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibition activities. H. rhamnoides and C. fistula extracts exhibited similarly high TPC levels, hydroxyl ion [OH] quenching activity, and α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase IC50 values (p > 0.05). However, their respective DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical [NO], and superoxide anion [O2−•] scavenging activities, as well as their IC50 values for β-glucuronidase, significantly differed (p ≤ 0.05), with results showcasing the highest values in C. fistula extracts. In sum, our in vitro data explicitly suggest that the pod extracts of C. fistula exert better antioxidant and enzymatic properties than those exhibited by the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. They also implicitly encourage performing multiple in vitro assays in order to thoroughly select a plant extract destined to a given medicinal, dietetic, or esthetic application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010010
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends
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Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010001
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
The European Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects) they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national
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The European Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects) they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication A Validated HPLC Method for the Determination of Vanillyl Butyl Ether in Cosmetic Preparations
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010009
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and
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A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (Na2HPO4 20 mM in water) (30:70 v/v) with a variable flow rate. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and reproducibility), specificity and linearity. The procedure described here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests of commercially available cosmetic products. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010004
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in
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Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing. Full article
Open AccessReview In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010002
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner.
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Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hair Care Cosmetics)

Other

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Open AccessCase Report Contact Allergy to Castor Oil, but Not to Castor Wax
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010005
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4), a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic
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Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4), a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics containing castor oil, in whom a correct diagnosis was achieved by patch testing castor oil ‘as is’. PEGylated and/or hydrogenated derivatives (the latter formerly also available from patch test allergen suppliers) and/or cosmetics containing these specific derivatives did not result in contact allergy or allergic contact dermatitis. This observation might be relevant for the manufacturing of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the future, further research into the allergenicity of castor oil and its numerous derivatives, and their optimal patch test concentrations, may be desirable. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010007
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by
[...] Read more.
Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking. Full article

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