Special Issue "Pigmentation correcting ingredients—Crucial Need for Innovation to Lead the Way"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Johanna Maria Gillbro

Oriflame Skin Research Institute, Mäster Samuelsgatan 56, Stockholm 11121, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +46 8 586 32 500
Interests: skin-lightening products; melanocytes; melanocyte-keratinocyte crosstalk; epidermal unit; tyrosinase; melanosomal transfer; melanosome biogenesis; endothelial cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functionally, naked skin, which comes in a range of colors, is unique to the human species. Since our ancestry, we have tried to influence our skin color to get fairer colors in ethnic skin types and darker colors in fairer skin types. Skin color has become a measure of health (darker in the Nordic hemisphere) and higher social standing and cultural refinement for fairer skin types in the southern hemisphere and Asia. This phenomena has religious, political and cultural background and hopefully skin color ideals (lighter or darker) will be persuaded away to instead focus on maintaining a healthy skin.

However, there is a clinical and cosmetic demand for correcting pigmentary unevenness for the treatment of disorders such as melasma and solar lentigo. Additionally, irregular facial pigmentation is an important sign of aging including wrinkles and sagging skin. Unfortunately, there are risks coupled to the use of many of the ingredients currently available. Many of those that are banned on the European market are purchased on the illegal market, in particular hydroquinone and corticosteroids, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

In this Special Issue, we will address consumer needs, in terms of hyperpigmentation correction, but also safety issues coupled to today’s market and the crucial need for the cosmetic industry to let innovation drive the development of safe and efficient cosmetic ingredients.

Dr. Johanna Maria Gillbro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • skin-lightening products
  • melanocytes
  • melanocyte-keratinocyte crosstalk
  • epidermal unit
  • tyrosinase
  • melanosomal transfer
  • melanosome biogenesis
  • endothelial cells

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Skin Whitening Cosmetics: Feedback and Challenges in the Development of Natural Skin Lighteners
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at
[...] Read more.
With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at various levels of melanogenesis. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone as whiter skin may be synonymous of wealth, health, youth, and/or beauty in different cultures. However, recent studies demonstrated the adverse effects of some of these ingredients, leading to their interdiction or restricted use under the European Directive and several other international regulations. After an overview of skin whitening practices and the associated risks, this article provides insight into the mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and the biological assays available to attest the lightening activity of individual ingredients. The legislation dealing with the use of skin lighteners is then discussed. As traditional depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone and corticosteroids are of safety concern, the potential of natural extracts has been investigated more and more; finally, a synthesis of three years of research in our laboratory for such plant extracts will be given. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in
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Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing. Full article
Open AccessReview A Fairer Face, a Fairer Tomorrow? A Review of Skin Lighteners
Received: 7 May 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued
[...] Read more.
From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued growth in the desire for skin lighteners sweeping the boundaries of country, race, cultural and socioeconomic status. This review explores our early associations with the symbolism of colour through religion, the ideals of complexion across cultures and time, the motivations behind the use of skin lightening practices, and the use of colour within political and economic agendas. Skin-lightening agents with regard to content, adverse effect profile and regulation are discussed and safe skin care practices in assisting with an individual’s adoption of a more tolerable spectrum of shades are alluded to. Full article
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Open AccessReview Overview of Skin Whitening Agents: Drugs and Cosmetic Products
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Depigmentation and skin lightening products, which have been in use for ages in Asian countries where skin whiteness is a major esthetic criterion, are now also highly valued by Western populations, who expose themselves excessively to the sun and develop skin spots as
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Depigmentation and skin lightening products, which have been in use for ages in Asian countries where skin whiteness is a major esthetic criterion, are now also highly valued by Western populations, who expose themselves excessively to the sun and develop skin spots as a consequence. After discussing the various possible mechanisms of depigmentation, the different molecules that can be used as well as the status of the products containing them will now be presented. Hydroquinone and derivatives thereof, retinoids, alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids, ascorbic acid, divalent ion chelators, kojic acid, azelaic acid, as well as diverse herbal extracts are described in terms of their efficacy and safety. Since a genuine effect (without toxic effects) is difficult to obtain, prevention by using sunscreen products is always preferable. Full article
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Open AccessReview Anti-Melanogenesis Effect of Quercetin
Received: 20 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whitening cosmetics with anti-melanogenesis activity are very popular worldwide. Many companies have tried to identify novel ingredients that show anti-melanogenesis effects for new product development. Among many plant-derived compounds, polyphenols are thought to be one of the most promising anti-melanogenesis ingredients. In order
[...] Read more.
Whitening cosmetics with anti-melanogenesis activity are very popular worldwide. Many companies have tried to identify novel ingredients that show anti-melanogenesis effects for new product development. Among many plant-derived compounds, polyphenols are thought to be one of the most promising anti-melanogenesis ingredients. In order to prepare effective whitening polyphenols, 3,3,4,5,7-pentahydrosyflavone (quercetin) has been widely researched and applied to commercial products because it is present in high levels in many edible plants. Quercetin is thus a representative polyphenol and has recently gained attention in the cosmetics field. There are many controversies, however, regarding the effect of quercetin, based on in vitro studies, cell line experiments, and human trials. In this review, toxicity and efficacy data for quercetin and its derivatives in various experimental conditions (i.e., various cell lines, concentration ranges, and other parameters) were examined. Based on this analysis, quercetin itself is shown to be ineffective for hypopigmentation of human skin. However, a few types of quercetin derivatives (such as glycosides) show some activity in a concentration-dependent manner. This review provides clarity in the debate regarding the effects of quercetin. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by
[...] Read more.
Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking. Full article
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