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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 287-533

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Strengthening the Resiliency of a Coastal Transportation System through Integrated Simulation of Storm Surge, Inundation, and Nonrecurrent Congestion in Northeast Florida
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 287-305; doi:10.3390/jmse2020287
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
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Abstract
The Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is an application developed within the framework of the broader Coastal Science Educational Virtual Appliance (CSEVA) to enhance coastal resiliency through the integration of coastal science and transportation congestion models for emergency situations. The first [...] Read more.
The Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is an application developed within the framework of the broader Coastal Science Educational Virtual Appliance (CSEVA) to enhance coastal resiliency through the integration of coastal science and transportation congestion models for emergency situations. The first generation MTEVA enabled users to perform and visualize simulations using an integrated storm surge and inundation model (CH3D-SSMS) and transportation evacuation/return modeling system that supports contraflow in a simple synthetic domain (order of tens of intersections/roads) under tropical storm conditions. In this study, the second generation MTEVA has been advanced to apply storm surge and evacuation models to the greater Jacksonville area of Northeast Florida (order tens of thousands of transportation intersections/roads). To support solving the evacuation problem with a significantly larger transportation network, new models have been developed, including a heuristic capable of efficiently solving large-scale problems. After initial testing on several smaller stand-alone transportation networks (e.g., Anaheim, Winnipeg), the heuristic is applied to the Jacksonville area transportation network. Results presented show the heuristic produces a nearly optimal (average optimality gap <0.5%) solution in 90% less wall clock time than needed by the exact solver. The MTEVA’s new capabilities are then demonstrated through the simulation of a Hurricane Katrina-sized storm impacting the region and studying how the evacuation patterns are affected by the closing of roads due to flooding and bridges due to high winds. To ensure residents are able to leave the area, evacuations are shown to need to have begun at least 36 h prior to landfall. Additionally it was shown that large numbers of residents would be left behind if evacuation does not begin within 18 h of landfall and ~97% would not escape if evacuation did not begin until landfall, when areas of the coast that are the most prone to flooding are already cut off from the “safe” nodes of the transportation network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Zone of Influence and Entrainment Impacts for an Intake Using a 3-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Transport Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 306-325; doi:10.3390/jmse2020306
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
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Abstract
Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the [...] Read more.
Ballast water systems in large LNG carriers are essential for proper operations and stability. Water withdrawn from the surrounding environment to supply to the ballast can pose entrainment and impingement risk to the resident fish population. Quantification of these risks and the net effect on population is usually quite challenging and complex. Various methods over the last several decades have been developed and are available in the literature for quantification of entrainment of mobile and immobile lifestages of resident fish. In this study, a detailed 3-dimensional model was developed to estimate the entrainment of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae) and fish from an estuarine environment during the repeated short-term operation of a ballast water intake for an LNG carrier. It was also used to develop a zone of influence to determine the ability of mobile life stages to avoid impingement. The ichthyoplankton model is an Equivalent Adult Model (EAM) and assesses the number of breeding adults lost to the population. The EAM incorporates four different methods developed between 1978 and 2005. The study also considers the uncertainty in estimates for the lifestage data and, as such, performs sensitivity analyses to evaluate the confidence level achievable in such quantitative estimates for entrainment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Basin Testing of Wave Energy Converters in Trondheim: Investigation of Mooring Loads and Implications for Wider Research
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 326-335; doi:10.3390/jmse2020326
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
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Abstract
This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an [...] Read more.
This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an analysis of the extreme mooring loads. Tests were completed at 1/20 scale on a single oscillating water column device and on close-packed arrays of three and five devices following calibration of instrumentation and the wave and current test environment. One wave energy converter (WEC) was fully instrumented with mooring line load cells, optical motion tracker and accelerometers and tested in regular waves, short- and long-crested irregular waves and current. The wave and current test regimes were measured by six wave probes and a current meter. Arrays of three and five similar WECs, with identical mooring systems, were tested under similar environmental loading with partial monitoring of mooring forces and motions. The majority of loads on the mooring lines appeared to be broadly consistent with both logistic and normal distribution; whilst the right tail appeared to conform to the extreme value distribution. Comparison of the loads at different configurations of WEC arrays suggests that the results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that the mooring loads should differ. In particular; the results from the tests in short crested seas conditions give an indication that peak loads in a multi WEC array may be considerably higher than in 1-WEC configuration. The test campaign has contributed essential data to the development of Simulink™ and Orcaflex™ models of devices, which include mooring system interactions, and data have also been obtained for inter-tank comparisons, studies of scale effects and validation of mooring system numerical models. It is hoped that this paper will help to draw the attention of a wider scientific community to the dataset freely available from the Marintek website. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle A Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model for the Waipaoa Shelf, New Zealand: Sensitivity of Fluxes to Spatially-Varying Erodibility and Model Nesting
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 336-369; doi:10.3390/jmse2020336
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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Abstract
Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field [...] Read more.
Numerical models can complement observations in investigations of marine sediment transport and depositional processes. A coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was implemented for the Waipaoa River continental shelf offshore of the North Island of New Zealand, to complement a 13-month field campaign that collected seabed and hydrodynamic measurements. This paper described the formulations used within the model, and analyzed the sensitivity of sediment flux estimates to model nesting and seabed erodibility. Calculations were based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System—Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (ROMS-CSTMS), a primitive equation model using a finite difference solution to the equations for momentum and water mass conservation, and transport of salinity, temperature, and multiple classes of suspended sediment. The three-dimensional model resolved the complex bathymetry, bottom boundary layer, and river plume that impact sediment dispersal on this shelf, and accounted for processes including fluvial input, winds, waves, tides, and sediment resuspension. Nesting within a larger-scale, lower resolution hydrodynamic model stabilized model behavior during river floods and allowed large-scale shelf currents to impact sediment dispersal. To better represent observations showing that sediment erodibility decreased away from the river mouth, the seabed erosion rate parameter was reduced with water depth. This allowed the model to account for the observed spatial pattern of erodibility, though the model held the critical shear stress for erosion constant. Although the model neglected consolidation and swelling processes, use of a spatially-varying erodibility parameter significantly increased export of fluvial sediment from Poverty Bay to deeper areas of the shelf. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bed Scouring During the Release of an Ice Jam
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 370-385; doi:10.3390/jmse2020370
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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Abstract
A model is developed for simulating changes in river bed morphology as a result of bed scouring during the release of an ice jam. The model couples a non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model with the processes of erosion and deposition through a grid expansion [...] Read more.
A model is developed for simulating changes in river bed morphology as a result of bed scouring during the release of an ice jam. The model couples a non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model with the processes of erosion and deposition through a grid expansion technique. The actual movement of bed load is implemented by reconstructing the river bed in piecewise linear elements in order to bypass the limitations of the step-like approximation that the hydrodynamic model uses to capture the bed bathymetry. Initially, an ice jam is modeled as a rigid body of water near the free surface that constricts the flow. The ice jam does not exchange mass or momentum with the stream, but the ice body can have a realistic shape and offer resistance to the flow of water through the constriction. An ice jam release is modeled by suddenly enabling the ice to flow and exchange mass and momentum with the water. The resulting release resembles a dam break wave accelerating and causing flow velocities to rise rapidly. The model is used to simulate the 1984 ice jam in the St. Clair River, which is part of the Huron-Erie Corridor. The jam had a duration of 24 days, and its release was accompanied by high flow velocities. It is speculated that high flow velocities during the release of the jam caused scouring of the river bed. This led to an increase in the river’s conveyance that is partly responsible for the persistence of low water levels in the upper Great Lakes. The simulations confirm that an event similar to the 1984 ice jam will indeed cause scouring of the St. Clair River bed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring Localized Mixing Dynamics during Wet Weather in a Tidal Fresh Water System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 386-399; doi:10.3390/jmse2020386
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
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Abstract
A recently validated 3-dimensional implementation of the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) for the tidal-fresh portions of the Delaware Estuary was exercised against the results of a dye release from a sewer outfall during a storm. The influence on dye distribution in [...] Read more.
A recently validated 3-dimensional implementation of the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) for the tidal-fresh portions of the Delaware Estuary was exercised against the results of a dye release from a sewer outfall during a storm. The influence on dye distribution in the estuary resulting from variations in wind and local storm water discharges in an urban area is investigated. The modeled domain stretches 116 km from the head of tide and includes hydrologic input from 33 streams and a number of municipal and industrial discharges. Bottom roughness was parameterized from sedimentological and geophysical surveys. Model validation to-date relies upon field observations and tidal harmonics for sea level and currents derived from the NOAA-NOS 1984–1985 circulation survey and a current survey conducted by the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD). Model representation of dye distribution compared favorably for observations of concentrations in the dye plume from 10 cross-sections spanning the extent of the plume over seven tidal cycles. The dye distribution was characterized by an initial period of high local storm water and stream inflows with low wind conditions, lasting for several tidal cycles, followed by a period of reduced fresh water input and increasing wind stress. The dye experiment provided a unique opportunity to observe the performance of the model through the transition between these two very different meteorological periods, and to explore the physical conditions driving the hydrodynamics through both observations and numerical experiments. The influences of local meteorological forcing and channel morphology on lateral mixing, dispersion and longitudinal dynamics are characterized. Full article
Open AccessArticle Model Behavior and Sensitivity in an Application of the Cohesive Bed Component of the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System for the York River Estuary, VA, USA
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 413-436; doi:10.3390/jmse2020413
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the application [...] Read more.
The Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) cohesive bed sub-model that accounts for erosion, deposition, consolidation, and swelling was implemented in a three-dimensional domain to represent the York River estuary, Virginia. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the application of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic York Cohesive Bed Model, (2) compare calculations to observations, and (3) investigate sensitivities of the cohesive bed sub-model to user-defined parameters. Model results for summer 2007 showed good agreement with tidal-phase averaged estimates of sediment concentration, bed stress, and current velocity derived from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) field measurements. An important step in implementing the cohesive bed model was specification of both the initial and equilibrium critical shear stress profiles, in addition to choosing other parameters like the consolidation and swelling timescales. This model promises to be a useful tool for investigating the fundamental controls on bed erodibility and settling velocity in the York River, a classical muddy estuary, provided that appropriate data exists to inform the choice of model parameters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Predicting the Storm Surge Threat of Hurricane Sandy with the National Weather Service SLOSH Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 437-476; doi:10.3390/jmse2020437
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
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Abstract
Numerical simulations of the storm tide that flooded the US Atlantic coastline during Hurricane Sandy (2012) are carried out using the National Weather Service (NWS) Sea Lakes and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) storm surge prediction model to quantify its ability to [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations of the storm tide that flooded the US Atlantic coastline during Hurricane Sandy (2012) are carried out using the National Weather Service (NWS) Sea Lakes and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) storm surge prediction model to quantify its ability to replicate the height, timing, evolution and extent of the water that was driven ashore by this large, destructive storm. Recent upgrades to the numerical model, including the incorporation of astronomical tides, are described and simulations with and without these upgrades are contrasted to assess their contributions to the increase in forecast accuracy. It is shown, through comprehensive verifications of SLOSH simulation results against peak water surface elevations measured at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gauge stations, by storm surge sensors deployed and hundreds of high water marks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), that the SLOSH-simulated water levels at 71% (89%) of the data measurement locations have less than 20% (30%) relative error. The RMS error between observed and modeled peak water levels is 0.47 m. In addition, the model’s extreme computational efficiency enables it to run large, automated ensembles of predictions in real-time to account for the high variability that can occur in tropical cyclone forecasts, thus furnishing a range of values for the predicted storm surge and inundation threat. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Optimization of Point Absorber Buoys
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 477-492; doi:10.3390/jmse2020477
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO), which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and [...] Read more.
A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO), which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and dimensions, the mass of the moving parts of the system and on the damping force from the generator. The electromagnetic damping in the generator depends on both the generator specifications, the connected load and the buoy velocity. In this paper a velocity ratio has been used to study how the geometric parameters buoy draft and radius, assuming constant generator damping coefficient, affects the motion and the energy absorption of a WEC. It have been concluded that an optimal buoy geometry can be identified for a specific generator damping. The simulated WEC performance have been compared with experimental values from two WECs with similar generators but different buoys. Conclusions have been drawn about their behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 493-505; doi:10.3390/jmse2020493
Received: 21 February 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
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Abstract
Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to [...] Read more.
Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location) in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Conceptual Design of a Tidal Power Plant in Taiwan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 506-533; doi:10.3390/jmse2020506
Received: 26 February 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Located on the northwestern of Taiwan, the Matsu archipelago is near mainland China and comprises four islands: Nangan, Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. The population of Matsu totals 11,196 and is chiefly concentrated on Nangan and Beigan. From 1971 to 2000, Matsu built [...] Read more.
Located on the northwestern of Taiwan, the Matsu archipelago is near mainland China and comprises four islands: Nangan, Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. The population of Matsu totals 11,196 and is chiefly concentrated on Nangan and Beigan. From 1971 to 2000, Matsu built five oil-fired power plants with a total installed capacity of 47 MW. However, the emissions and noise generated by the oil-fired power plant has caused damage to Matsu’s environment, and the cost of fuel is high due to the long-distance shipping from Taiwan. Developing renewable energy in Matsu has therefore been a fervent topic for the Taiwan government, and tidal power is considered to be of the highest priority due to Matsu’s large tidal range (4.29 m in average) and its semidiurnal tide. Moreover, the islands of Nangan and Beigan are composed of granite and have natural harbors, rendering them ideal places for coastal engineering of tidal power plants. This paper begins with a renewable energy reserves assessment in Matsu to determine the amount of tidal energy. Next, a tidal turbine type of the lowest cost is chosen, and then its dynamic characteristic, performance, and related design are analyzed. Finally, the coastal engineering condition was investigated, and a conceptual design for tidal power plant is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Universal Parameter to Predict Subaerial Landslide Tsunamis?
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 400-412; doi:10.3390/jmse2020400
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The significance of the impulse product parameter P is reviewed, which is believed to be the most universal parameter for subaerial landslide tsunami (impulse wave) prediction. This semi-empirical parameter is based on the streamwise slide momentum flux component and it was refined [...] Read more.
The significance of the impulse product parameter P is reviewed, which is believed to be the most universal parameter for subaerial landslide tsunami (impulse wave) prediction. This semi-empirical parameter is based on the streamwise slide momentum flux component and it was refined with a multiple regression laboratory data analysis. Empirical equations based on P allow for a simple prediction of wave features under diverse conditions (landslides and ice masses, granular and block slides, etc.). Analytical evidence reveals that a mass sliding down a hill slope of angle 51.6° results in the highest waves. The wave height “observed” in the 1958 Lituya Bay case was well predicted using P. Other real-world case studies illustrate how efficient empirical equations based on P deliver wave estimates which support hazard assessment. Future applications are hoped to further confirm the applicability of P to cases with more complex water body geometries and bathymetries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)

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