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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-286

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of the Journal of Marine Science and Engineering in 2013
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 159; doi:10.3390/jmse2010159
Received: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of the Journal of Marine Science and Engineering would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle NOAA’s Nested Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast Systems Development
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/jmse2010001
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014
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Abstract
The NOAA National Ocean Service’s (NOS) Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System (NGOFS) became operational in March 2012. Implemented with the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) as its core three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model, NGOFS produces a real-time nowcast (−6 h [...] Read more.
The NOAA National Ocean Service’s (NOS) Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System (NGOFS) became operational in March 2012. Implemented with the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) as its core three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model, NGOFS produces a real-time nowcast (−6 h to zero) and six-hourly, two-day forecast guidance for water levels and three-dimensional currents, water temperature and salinity over the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf. Designed as a regional scale prediction system, NGOFS lacks sufficient spatial coverage and/or resolution to fully resolve hydrodynamic features in critical seaports and estuaries. To overcome this shortcoming and better support the needs of marine navigation, emergency response, and environmental management, two FVCOM-based, high-resolution, estuary-scale nested forecast modeling systems, namely the Northwest and Northeast Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast Systems (NWGOFS and NEGOFS), have been developed through one-way nesting in NGOFS. Using the atmospheric forecast guidance from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/NWS (National Weather Services)’ North American Mesoscale (NAM) Forecast System, US Geological Survey (USGS) river discharge observations, and the NGOFS water level, current, water temperature and salinity as the surface, river, and open ocean boundary forcing, respectively, a six-month model hindcast for the period October 2010–March 2011 has been conducted. Modeled water levels, currents, salinity and water temperature are compared with observations using the NOS standard skill assessment software. Skill assessment scores indicated that NWGOFS and NEGOFS demonstrate improvement over NGOFS. The NWGOFS and NEGOFS are under real-time nowcast/forecast test and evaluation by NOS’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). The forecast systems are scheduled to be implemented operational on NOAA Weather & Climate Operational Supercomputing System (WCOSS) in June 2014. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 18-32; doi:10.3390/jmse2010018
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 31 December 2013 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional [...] Read more.
To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal wetland. The complex and dynamic Skagit River estuarine system calls for the need of a multi-facet and multi-dimensional analysis using observed data, numerical and analytical methods. To assist the feasibility study of the restoration project, a hydrodynamic modeling analysis was conducted using a high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model to evaluate the hydrodynamic response to restoration alternatives and to provide guidance to the engineering design of a new levee in the restoration site. A set of parameters were defined to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as inundation area, duration of inundation, water depth and salinity of the inundated area. To assist the design of the new levee in the restoration site, the maximum water level near the project site was estimated with consideration of extreme high tide, wind-induced storm surge, significant wave height and future sea-level rise based on numerical model results and coastal engineering calculation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Hurricane Irene’s Wind Field Using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 33-45; doi:10.3390/jmse2010033
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 11 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
Hurricane Irene caused widespread and significant impacts along the U.S. east coast during 27–29 August 2011. During this period, the storm moved across eastern North Carolina and then tracked northward crossing into Long Island and western New England. Impacts included severe flooding [...] Read more.
Hurricane Irene caused widespread and significant impacts along the U.S. east coast during 27–29 August 2011. During this period, the storm moved across eastern North Carolina and then tracked northward crossing into Long Island and western New England. Impacts included severe flooding from the mid-Atlantic states into eastern New York and western New England, widespread wind damage and power outages across a large portion of southern and central New England, and a major storm surge along portions of the Long Island coast. The objective of this study was to conduct retrospective simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model in an effort to reconstruct the storm’s surface wind field during the period of 27–29 August 2011. The goal was to evaluate how to use the WRF modeling system as a tool for reconstructing the surface wind field from historical storm events to support storm surge studies. The results suggest that, with even modest data assimilation applied to these simulations, the model was able to resolve the detailed structure of the storm, the storm track, and the spatial surface wind field pattern very well. The WRF model shows real potential for being used as a tool to analyze historical storm events to support storm surge studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Hydrodynamic Modelling Framework for Strangford Lough Part 1: Tidal Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 46-65; doi:10.3390/jmse2010046
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract
Hydrodynamic models are a powerful tool that can be used by a wide range of end users to assist in predicting the effects of both physical and biological processes on local environmental conditions. This paper describes the development of a tidal model [...] Read more.
Hydrodynamic models are a powerful tool that can be used by a wide range of end users to assist in predicting the effects of both physical and biological processes on local environmental conditions. This paper describes the development of a tidal model for Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, a body of water renowned for the location of the first grid-connected tidal turbine, SeaGen, as well as the UK’s third Marine Nature Reserve. Using MIKE 21 modelling software, the development, calibration and performance of the model are described in detail. Strangford Lough has a complex flow pattern with high flows through the Narrows (~3.5 m/s) linking the main body of the Lough to the Irish Sea and intricate flow patterns around the numerous islands. With the aid of good quality tidal and current data obtained throughout the Lough during the model development, the surface elevation and current magnitude between the observed and numerical model were almost identical with model skill >0.98 and >0.84 respectively. The applicability of the model is such that it can be used as an important tool for the prediction of important ecological processes as well as engineering applications within Strangford Lough. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimate Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Crystal River/Kings Bay in Florida with the Help of a Hydrodynamic Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 66-80; doi:10.3390/jmse2010066
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract
Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system located on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. During 2008-2009, a field investigation was conducted to measure submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) from numerous spring vents in Kings Bay. Based on directly measured real-time [...] Read more.
Crystal River/Kings Bay is a spring-fed estuarine system located on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. During 2008-2009, a field investigation was conducted to measure submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs) from numerous spring vents in Kings Bay. Based on directly measured real-time SGD data, an empirical relationship that links SGD with tides in Kings Bay and the groundwater level measured in a nearby Artesian well were obtained. A 3D unstructured Cartesian grid model was used to help verify the correctness of the empirical SGD formula, which was slightly adjusted for each individual vent when used in the model. The model was calibrated and verified against measured real-time data of water level, salinity, and temperature at two stations in the estuary. A successful simulation of circulations, salinity transport processes, and thermodynamics in the Crystal River/Kings Bay system proves that the empirical relationship is appropriate for estimating SGDs in Kings Bay. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Kelp-Type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 81-92; doi:10.3390/jmse2010081
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
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Abstract
With the rapid growth of global energy demand, interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an [...] Read more.
With the rapid growth of global energy demand, interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent technology advances, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible only when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module based on the classic momentum sink approach was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of a farm of passive uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles.Model results suggest that the reduction in ambient currents could range from 4% to 10% using adsorbent farm dimensions and mooring densities previously described in the literature and with typical drag coefficients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison and Sensitivity Investigations of a CALM and SALM Type Mooring System for Wave Energy Converters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 93-122; doi:10.3390/jmse2010093
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
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Abstract
A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM) and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM)—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system [...] Read more.
A quasi-static analysis and sensitivity investigation of two different mooring configurations—a single anchor leg mooring (SALM) and a three-legged catenary anchor leg system (CALM)—is presented. The analysis aims to indicate what can be expected in terms of requirements for the mooring system size and stiffness. The two mooring systems were designed for the same reference load case, corresponding to a horizontal design load at the wave energy converter (WEC) of 2000 kN and a water depth of 30 m. This reference scenario seems to be representative for large WECs operating in intermediate water depths, such as Weptos, Wave Dragon and many others, including reasonable design safety factors. Around this reference scenario, the main influential parameters were modified in order to investigate their impact on the specifications of the mooring system, e.g. the water depth, the horizontal design load, and a mooring design parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle Conceptual Site Model for Newark Bay—Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 123-139; doi:10.3390/jmse2010123
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
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Abstract
A conceptual site model (CSM) has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA) as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and [...] Read more.
A conceptual site model (CSM) has been developed for the Newark Bay Study Area (NBSA) as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for this New Jersey site. The CSM is an evolving document that describes the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes on contaminant fate and transport. The CSM is initiated at the start of a project, updated during site activities, and used to inform sampling and remediation planning. This paper describes the hydrodynamic and sediment transport components of the CSM for the NBSA. Hydrodynamic processes are influenced by freshwater inflows, astronomical forcing through two tidal straits, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic activities such as navigational dredging. Sediment dynamics are driven by hydrodynamics, waves, sediment loading from freshwater sources and the tidal straits, sediment size gradation, sediment bed properties, and particle-to-particle interactions. Cohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, aggregation, settling, consolidation, and erosion. Noncohesive sediment transport is governed by advection, dispersion, settling, armoring, and transport in suspension and along the bed. The CSM will inform the development and application of a numerical model that accounts for all key variables to adequately describe the NBSA’s historical, current, and future physical conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Numerical Implementation of a Nonlinear Mild Slope Model for Shoaling Directional Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 140-158; doi:10.3390/jmse2010140
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
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Abstract
We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad) wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates [...] Read more.
We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad) wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates the coupled, nonlinear hyperbolic evolution equations that describe the transformation of the complex Fourier amplitudes of the deep-water directional wave field. Because typical directional wave spectra (observed or produced by deep-water forecasting models such as WAVEWATCH III™) do not contain phase information, individual realizations are generated by associating a random phase to each Fourier mode. The approach provides a natural extension to the deep-water spectral wave models, and has the advantage of fully describing the shoaling wave stochastic process, i.e., the evolution of both the variance and higher order statistics (phase correlations), the latter related to the evolution of the wave shape. The numerical implementation (a Fortran 95/2003 code) includes unidirectional (shore-perpendicular) propagation as a special case. Interoperability, both with post-processing programs (e.g., MATLAB/Tecplot 360) and future model coupling (e.g., offshore wave conditions from WAVEWATCH III™), is promoted by using NetCDF-4/HD5 formatted output files. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated using a JONSWAP spectrum with a cos2s directional distribution, for shore-perpendicular and oblique propagation. The simulated wave transformation under combined shoaling, refraction and nonlinear interactions shows the expected generation of directional harmonics of the spectral peak and of infragravity (frequency <0.05 Hz) waves. Current development efforts focus on analytic testing, development of additional physics modules essential for applications and validation with laboratory and field observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 160-170; doi:10.3390/jmse2010160
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
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Abstract
Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. [...] Read more.
Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Use of Tide Models in Alaska Supporting VDatum and Hydrographic Surveying
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 171-193; doi:10.3390/jmse2010171
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 25 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
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Abstract
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean Service uses observations, hydrodynamic models and interpolation techniques to develop many of its products and services. We examine how two projects, computation of tidal datums for vertical datum transformation and the estimation of tidal characteristics [...] Read more.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean Service uses observations, hydrodynamic models and interpolation techniques to develop many of its products and services. We examine how two projects, computation of tidal datums for vertical datum transformation and the estimation of tidal characteristics for hydrographic surveys, are being developed in Alaska and how they may be more seamlessly integrated. Preliminary VDatum development for Alaska is in progress for the Alaska Panhandle through the setup of a high resolution tide model that will be used to compute spatially varying tidal datums. Tide models such as these can be used for other projects that traditionally rely on estimation of tides in between data locations, such as the planning for hydrographic surveys that need correctors to adjust bathymetry to the chart datum. We therefore also examine how an existing model in western Alaska can be used for better supporting hydrographic survey planning. The results show that integration of tide models with nearshore observations can provide improved information for these correctors and future work will further evaluate this methodology with existing VDatum tide models. Full article
Open AccessArticle Advances in a Distributed Approach for Ocean Model Data Interoperability
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 194-208; doi:10.3390/jmse2010194
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract
An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find [...] Read more.
An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and retrieve, leaving more time for science. We describe recent advances that make it easier for ocean model providers to share their data, and for users to search, access, analyze and visualize ocean data using MATLAB® and Python®. These include a technique for modelers to create aggregated, Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention datasets from collections of non-standard Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) output files, the capability to remotely access data from CF-1.6-compliant NetCDF files using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a metadata standard for unstructured grid model output (UGRID), and tools that utilize both CF and UGRID standards to allow interoperable data search, browse and access. We use examples from the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed, a project in which modelers using both structured and unstructured grid model output needed to share their results, to compare their results with other models, and to compare models with observed data. The same techniques used here for ocean modeling output can be applied to atmospheric and climate model output, remote sensing data, digital terrain and bathymetric data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 209-225; doi:10.3390/jmse2010209
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract
The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour [...] Read more.
The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows) and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 226-246; doi:10.3390/jmse2010226
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract
Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE), was used to hindcast water level variation during [...] Read more.
Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE), was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Towards the Development of the National Ocean Service San Francisco Bay Operational Forecast System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(1), 247-286; doi:10.3390/jmse2010247
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract
The National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Operational Products and Services installed a Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay during 1998 to provide water surface elevation, currents at PORTS prediction depth as well as near-surface temperature and salinity. [...] Read more.
The National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Operational Products and Services installed a Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay during 1998 to provide water surface elevation, currents at PORTS prediction depth as well as near-surface temperature and salinity. To complement the PORTS, a new nowcast/forecast system (consistent with NOS procedures) has been constructed. This new nowcast/forecast system is based on the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) using a computational domain, which extends from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and Antioch on the San Joaquin River through Suisun and San Pablo Bays and Upper and Lower San Francisco Bay out onto the continental shelf. This paper presents the FVCOM setup, testing, and validation for tidal and hindcast scenarios. In addition, the San Francisco Bay Operational Forecast System (SFBOFS) setup within the NOS Coastal Ocean Model Framework (COMF) is discussed. The SFBOFS performance during a semi-operational nowcast/forecast test period is presented and the production webpage is also briefly introduced. FVCOM, the core of SFBOFS, has been found to run robustly during the test period. Amplitudes and epochs of the M2 S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, and Q1 constituents from the model tide-only simulation scenario are very close to the observed values at all stations. NOS skill assessment and RMS errors of all variables indicate that most statistical parameters pass the assessment criteria, and the model predictions are in agreement with measurements for both hindcast and semi-operational nowcast/forecast scenarios. Full article

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