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Antioxidants, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 194-407

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Effect of Lippia alba (Miller) N. E. Brown
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 194-205; doi:10.3390/antiox2040194
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
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Abstract
Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated [...] Read more.
Lippia alba is a shrub found in all regions of Brazil and other countries in South and Central America. L. alba exhibits variability among its different accessions, showing differences in morphology and in the composition of its essential oil. This study evaluated the phenolic profiles and the antioxidant activities of seven different accessions of L. alba. The seven accessions of L. alba studied exhibited an important phenolic content, and all accessions demonstrated antioxidant activity with different efficacies. The main flavonoids in all accessions were apigenin, luteolin, naringin and rutin. The Santa Vitória do Palmar accession exhibited higher naringin and total phenolic content. This extract was able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in tissue homogenates of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and liver of Wistar rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 206-215; doi:10.3390/antiox2040206
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Abstract
The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property [...] Read more.
The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature) were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I). The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III) and blackberry (I), respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 216-229; doi:10.3390/antiox2040216
Received: 22 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
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Abstract
Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits [...] Read more.
Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW). Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW), and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW) was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 246-256; doi:10.3390/antiox2040246
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
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Abstract
The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all [...] Read more.
The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107), then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00) and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00), and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52). The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p < 0.05). % Inhibition of DPPH by the crude extract and fractions of all oilseeds was quite significant, being higher for acidic than neutral. The highest % DPPH inhibition was shown by ajwain extract than mustard > fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05). The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05). Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 257-264; doi:10.3390/antiox2040257
Received: 20 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned [...] Read more.
Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Constituents of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 265-272; doi:10.3390/antiox2040265
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
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Abstract
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as a styptic. Before extraction, the plant material was separated into three parts: young sterile shoots, older stems and leaves. All these parts were extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane, successively. The methanolic extract of the sterile shoots showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay (IC50 30.91 ± 2.97 µg/mL). This active extract was further analyzed with chromatographic methods. TLC fingerprinting and HPLC indicated the presence of the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin), ursolic acid as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid. The findings were substantiated with LC-MS. All identified compounds have antioxidant properties and therefore contribute to the radical scavenging activity of the whole plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 273-292; doi:10.3390/antiox2040273
Received: 15 August 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It [...] Read more.
Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 326-339; doi:10.3390/antiox2040326
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T1, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T2 was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 370-383; doi:10.3390/antiox2040370
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
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Abstract
Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of [...] Read more.
Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke and Siparuna guianensis Aublet
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 384-397; doi:10.3390/antiox2040384
Received: 31 August 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to chemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (pepper) and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (negramina). The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger modified apparatus, and the identification and [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to chemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (pepper) and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (negramina). The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger modified apparatus, and the identification and quantification of constituents, through GC/MS and GC-FID analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using β-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH radical sequestering method. In chromatographic analysis, the majority constituents found in the essential oil of C. dinisii were bicyclic monoterpenes, α-pinene (35.41%), β-pinene (17.81%), sabinene (12.01%) and sesquiterpene bicyclogermacrene (7.59%). In the essential oil of the fresh leaves of Siparuna guianensis Aublet, acyclic monoterpene, β-myrcene (13.14%), and sesquiterpenes, germacrene-D (8.68%) and bicyclogermacrene (16.71%) were identified. The antioxidant activity was low by the β-carotene/linoleic acid test and was not evidenced by the DPPH test, for both oils evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Oils)
Open AccessArticle Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Silymarin Components
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 398-407; doi:10.3390/antiox2040398
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 21 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
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Abstract
Silymarin is an over the counter food supplement that is sold as a liver enhancement and liver protection preparation. It is a major constituent of the seeds of Silybum marianum which is composed of a mixture of seven major components and several [...] Read more.
Silymarin is an over the counter food supplement that is sold as a liver enhancement and liver protection preparation. It is a major constituent of the seeds of Silybum marianum which is composed of a mixture of seven major components and several minor compounds. The seven major components: taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, iso-silybin A and iso-silybin B were isolated and purified from the crude mixture of silymarin using preparative high performance liquid chromatography to determine which were the most effective for liver protection. Free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity and total antioxidant capacity antioxidant activities were determined for each of the individual purified components as well as the crude silymarin mixture. Taxifolin was the most effective component for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH assay with an EC50 of 32 µM far more effective than all other components which showed EC50 ranging from 115 to 855 µM. Taxifolin was also found to be the most effective antioxidant in the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay with a trolox equivalent of 2.43 and the second most effective in the hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) assay with a gallic acid equivalent of 0.57. Other antioxidants assays did not show significant differences between samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 230-245; doi:10.3390/antiox2040230
Received: 9 August 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
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Abstract
This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison [...] Read more.
This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessReview Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 293-308; doi:10.3390/antiox2040293
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae) is a source [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae) is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesses since ancient times. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this article is to assess the potential role of saffron and its constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter obesity pathophysiology. Full article
Open AccessReview Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 309-325; doi:10.3390/antiox2040309
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 25 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century [...] Read more.
Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants)
Open AccessReview Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.
Antioxidants 2013, 2(4), 340-369; doi:10.3390/antiox2040340
Received: 14 July 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, [...] Read more.
This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants)

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