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Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, PO Box 550, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Kentville, NS B4N IJ5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2013; in revised form: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
Abstract: Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW) respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW). Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW), and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW) was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.
Keywords: wild blueberry; Vaccinium angustifolium; fruit maturity; polyphenols; physico-chemical parameters; antioxidants; organic acids; sugars
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Gibson, L.; Rupasinghe, H.P.V.; Forney, C.F.; Eaton, L. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening. Antioxidants 2013, 2, 216-229.
Gibson L, Rupasinghe HPV, Forney CF, Eaton L. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening. Antioxidants. 2013; 2(4):216-229.
Gibson, Lara; Rupasinghe, H. P.V.; Forney, Charles F.; Eaton, Leonard. 2013. "Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening." Antioxidants 2, no. 4: 216-229.