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Water, Volume 6, Issue 2 (February 2014), Pages 196-438

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Water in 2013
Water 2014, 6(2), 434-438; doi:10.3390/w6020434
Received: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Water would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Temporal Variability of Monthly Daily Extreme Water Levels in the St. Lawrence River at the Sorel Station from 1912 to 2010
Water 2014, 6(2), 196-212; doi:10.3390/w6020196
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although climate models predict that the impacts of climate change on the temporal variability of water levels in the St. Lawrence River will be seasonally-dependent, such a seasonal effect on the current variability of extreme water levels has never been analyzed. To [...] Read more.
Although climate models predict that the impacts of climate change on the temporal variability of water levels in the St. Lawrence River will be seasonally-dependent, such a seasonal effect on the current variability of extreme water levels has never been analyzed. To address this, we analyzed the temporal variability of three hydrological variables (monthly daily maximums and minimums, as well as their ratio) of water levels in the St. Lawrence River measured at the Sorel station since 1912, as they relate to climate indices. As for stationarity, the shifts in the mean values of maximum and minimum water levels revealed by the Lombard method took place prior to 1970 for spring water levels, but after that year, for winter water levels. Changes in the winter stationarity are thought to mainly relate to the decreasing snowfall observed in the St. Lawrence River watershed after 1970. In contrast, for spring, these changes are likely primarily related to human activity (digging of the St. Lawrence Seaway and construction of dams). Two shifts in the mean values of fall minimum extreme water levels were highlighted. The first of these shifts, which occurred in the first half of the 1960s decade, can also be linked to human activity (digging of the St. Lawrence Seaway and construction of dams), whereas the second shift, observed after the 1970s for the months of November and December, can be linked to decreasing amounts of snow in winter. AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) is the climate index that is most frequently correlated negatively with the hydrologic variables, mainly in winter and spring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Three Two-Stage Hybrid Ecological Wastewater Treatment Systems for Producing High Nutrient, Reclaimed Water for Irrigation Reuse in Developing Countries
Water 2014, 6(2), 213-228; doi:10.3390/w6020213
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 18 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, three different two-stage hybrid ecological wastewater treatment systems (HEWTS) with combinations of horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetlands (CWs), vertical flow (VF) CWs and stabilization ponds (SP) were evaluated for the removal of Organic-N, NH4+, NO3 [...] Read more.
In this study, three different two-stage hybrid ecological wastewater treatment systems (HEWTS) with combinations of horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetlands (CWs), vertical flow (VF) CWs and stabilization ponds (SP) were evaluated for the removal of Organic-N, NH4+, NO3, Total N, Total P, Total Coliforms (TCol) and Escherichia Coli, BOD, COD and TSS. The overall goal of the study was novel in comparison to most other studies in that we sought to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the three HEWTSs for water quality improvements, while minimizing nutrient removal from the wastewater in order to generate high quality reclaimed water for reuse for irrigation of crops. The most effective systems were those systems containing a vertical flow component, either HF-VF or VF-HF. In these two HEWTS, NH4+ was reduced by 85.5% and 85.0% respectively, while NO3 was increased to 91.4 ± 17.6 mg/L and to 82.5 ± 17.2 mg/L, respectively, an artifact of nitrification. At the same time, E. coli was reduced by 99.93% and 99.99%, respectively. While the goal of most wastewater treatment is focused on reducing nutrients, the results here demonstrate that two-stage HEWTSs containing VF components can be used to produce a high quality effluent while retaining inorganic nutrients, thereby conserving this valuable resource for reuse as irrigation water for agriculture in subtropical developing countries where water and fertilizer resources are scarce or expensive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Inexact Mathematical Modeling for the Identification of Water Trading Policy under Uncertainty
Water 2014, 6(2), 229-252; doi:10.3390/w6020229
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a two-stage inexact credibility-constrained programming (TICP) method is developed for identifying the efficiency of water trading under multiple uncertainties. TICP can tackle uncertainties expressed as probabilistic distributions, discrete intervals and fuzzy sets. It can also provide an effective linkage [...] Read more.
In this study, a two-stage inexact credibility-constrained programming (TICP) method is developed for identifying the efficiency of water trading under multiple uncertainties. TICP can tackle uncertainties expressed as probabilistic distributions, discrete intervals and fuzzy sets. It can also provide an effective linkage between the benefits to the system and the associated economic penalties attributed to the violation of the predefined policies for water resource allocation. The developed TICP method is applied to a real case of water resource allocation management and planning in the Kaidu-kongque River Basin, which is a typical arid region in Northwest China. Different water resource allocation policies based on changes to the water permit and trading ratio levels are examined. The results indicate that the efficiencies of water trading are sensitive to the degrees of satisfaction (i.e., interval credibility levels), which correspond to different water resource management policies. Furthermore, the comparison of benefits and shortages between trading and non-trading schemes implies that trading is more optimal and effective than non-trading. The results are helpful for making decisions about water allocation in an efficient way and for gaining insight into the tradeoffs between water trading and economic objectives. Full article
Open AccessArticle Flood Risk Impact Factor for Comparatively Evaluating the Main Causes that Contribute to Flood Risk in Urban Drainage Areas
Water 2014, 6(2), 253-270; doi:10.3390/w6020253
Received: 10 November 2013 / Revised: 8 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the various factors that contribute to flood risk, heavy storms, inadequate storm drainage systems, and the concentration of population and assets have usually been considered to be fundamental factors affecting flood damage. Climate change is also a real threat, bringing heavier [...] Read more.
Among the various factors that contribute to flood risk, heavy storms, inadequate storm drainage systems, and the concentration of population and assets have usually been considered to be fundamental factors affecting flood damage. Climate change is also a real threat, bringing heavier and more frequent storms. This study presents a methodology for comparatively evaluating the impact of the flood risk factors using a GIS-based flood damage prediction model (FDPM). The FDPM calculates flood inundation depths using the XP-SWMM routine and monetary flood damages using a flood damage estimation model for various storms and catchment conditions. The concept of flood risk in this context is defined as the product of flood damage and the probability of its occurrence. This study produces a flood risk structure in a risk assessment framework. The method is applied to the Kiba drainage area in Tokyo, Japan. The study gives a quantitative evaluation of the changes in flood risk due to risk factors such as increase in asset values, flood control, and climate change using a flood risk impact factor (FRIF). The FRIF is introduced as an index to evaluate the impact of various sources of increased or reduced flood risk to society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Nationwide Digital Terrain Models for Topographic Depression Modelling in Detection of Flood Detention Areas
Water 2014, 6(2), 271-300; doi:10.3390/w6020271
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract
Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrological processes as they affect the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution [...] Read more.
Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrological processes as they affect the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions or the hydrological impacts of depressions. Here, we quantify the variation of hydrological depression variables between DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes based on nationwide 25 m × 25 m and 10 m × 10 m DTMs and 2 m × 2 m ALS-DTM in Finland. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the effect of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also studied. Quantitative methods and error models were employed. In our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM, the maximum errors were found to create the largest differences between DTMs and hence dominated the amount and statistical distribution of the depth error. On the whole, the ability of a DTM to accurately represent depressions varied uniquely according to each depression, although DTMs also displayed certain typical characteristics. Thus, a DTM’s higher resolution is no guarantee of a more accurate representation of topographic depressions, even though acquisition and processing methods have an important bearing on the accuracy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico
Water 2014, 6(2), 301-323; doi:10.3390/w6020301
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The [...] Read more.
High-elevation groundwater sampled in 2003 in the Sacramento Mountains defines a line resembling an evaporation trend in δD-δ18O space. The trend results from recharge of winter precipitation into fractured limestone, with evaporation prior to recharge in broad mountain valleys. The same trend occurs in basin groundwater east and west of the range, indicating the high Sacramento Mountains as the principal regional water source, either direct from the limestone aquifers or from mountain-derived surface water. Tritium and carbon-14 indicate bulk residence times of a few decades in the high Sacramento Mountains and at Alamogordo, and of thousands of years south of Alamogordo and in the artesian aquifer near Artesia. Stable O, H isotope data fail to demonstrate the presence of Sacramento Mountains water in a saline aquifer of the Hueco Bolson (Texas). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tracers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Salinity Intrusion and Transport Time Scales in a Tidal Estuary, Taiwan
Water 2014, 6(2), 324-344; doi:10.3390/w6020324
Received: 28 October 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global climate change has resulted in a gradual sea level rise. Sea level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, thereby threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. In the present study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was established [...] Read more.
Global climate change has resulted in a gradual sea level rise. Sea level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, thereby threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. In the present study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was established to simulate salinity distributions and transport time scales in the Wu River estuary of central Taiwan. The model was calibrated and verified using tidal amplitudes and phases, time-series water surface elevation and salinity distributions in 2011. The results show that the model simulation and measured data are in good agreement. The validated model was then applied to calculate the salinity distribution, flushing time and residence time in response to a sea level rise of 38.27 cm. We found that the flushing time for high flow under the present condition was lower compared to the sea level rise scenario and that the flushing time for low flow under the present condition was higher compared to the sea level rise scenario. The residence time for the present condition and the sea level rise scenario was between 10.51 and 34.23 h and between 17.11 and 38.92 h, respectively. The simulated results reveal that the residence time of the Wu River estuary will increase when the sea level rises. The distance of salinity intrusion in the Wu River estuary will increase and move further upstream when the sea level rises, resulting in the limited availability of water of suitable quality for municipal and industrial uses. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydrological Flood Simulation Using a Design Hyetograph Created from Extreme Weather Data of a High-Resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model
Water 2014, 6(2), 345-366; doi:10.3390/w6020345
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 5 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand the characteristics of severe floods under global climate change, we created a design hyetograph for a 100-year return period. This incorporates a modified ranking method using the top 10 extreme rainfall events for present, near-future, and far-future periods. The rainfall [...] Read more.
To understand the characteristics of severe floods under global climate change, we created a design hyetograph for a 100-year return period. This incorporates a modified ranking method using the top 10 extreme rainfall events for present, near-future, and far-future periods. The rainfall data sets were projected with a general circulation model with high spatial and temporal resolution and used with a flood model to simulate the higher discharge peaks for the top 10 events of each term in a local watershed. The conventional-like ranking method, in which only a dimensionless shape is considered for the creation of a design hyetograph for a temporal distribution of rainfall, likely results in overestimates of discharge peaks because, even with a lower peak of rainfall intensity and a smaller amount of cumulative rainfall, the distribution shape is the only the factor for the design hyetograph. However, the modified ranking method, which considers amounts of cumulative rainfalls, provides a discharge peak from the design hyetograph less affected by a smaller cumulative rainfall depth for extreme rainfall. Furthermore, the effects of global climate change indicate that future discharge peaks will increase by up to three times of those of Present-term peaks, which may result in difficult flood control for the downstream river reaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Real Time Estimation of the Calgary Floods Using Limited Remote Sensing Data
Water 2014, 6(2), 381-398; doi:10.3390/w6020381
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every year, flood disasters are responsible for widespread destruction and loss of human life. Remote sensing data are capable of providing valuable, synoptic coverage of flood events but are not always available because of satellite revisit limitations, obstructions from cloud cover or [...] Read more.
Every year, flood disasters are responsible for widespread destruction and loss of human life. Remote sensing data are capable of providing valuable, synoptic coverage of flood events but are not always available because of satellite revisit limitations, obstructions from cloud cover or vegetation canopy, or expense. In addition, knowledge of road accessibility is imperative during all phases of a flood event. In June 2013, the City of Calgary experienced sudden and extensive flooding but lacked comprehensive remote sensing coverage. Using this event as a case study, this work illustrates how data from non-authoritative sources are used to augment traditional data and methods to estimate flood extent and identify affected roads during a flood disaster. The application of these data, which may have varying resolutions and uncertainities, provide an estimation of flood extent when traditional data and methods are lacking or incomplete. When flooding occurs over multiple days, it is possible to construct an estimate of the advancement and recession of the flood event. Non-authoritative sources also provide flood information at the micro-level, which can be difficult to capture from remote sensing data; however, the distibution and quantity of data collected from these sources will affect the quality of the flood estimations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Hydraulic Characteristics on Algal Bloom in an Artificial Seawater Canal: A Case Study in Songdo City, South Korea
Water 2014, 6(2), 399-413; doi:10.3390/w6020399
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Algal blooms have threatened the environmental functions of artificial seawater canals. Generally, water quality in a canal is managed by periodically circulating water from the sea into the canal. However, hydraulic characteristics from the canal design can interrupt the removal of algal [...] Read more.
Algal blooms have threatened the environmental functions of artificial seawater canals. Generally, water quality in a canal is managed by periodically circulating water from the sea into the canal. However, hydraulic characteristics from the canal design can interrupt the removal of algal blooms by water circulations in the canal. Accordingly, this study analyzed the effect of the hydraulic characteristics on algal blooms in an artificial seawater channel in Central Park, New Songdo City, Korea using a 3-D hydrodynamic model. Nutrients and velocity in stagnant areas in the canal were spatio-temporally measured. Algal bloom locations based on field monitoring mainly corresponded with areas of stagnant water and high vorticity in the z-direction, as determined by the numerical simulations. These results support that high vorticity interrupts the transfer water to the outer area when the canal water is in a stagnant condition. A high value of z-direction vorticity resulted in increased nutrient (total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorus (T-P)) availability, and sequentially increases the probability of algal bloom events. In this regard, this study will give a contribution to prevention of algal blooms in the artificial seawater canal. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Water Management Practice for Sustainable Mining
Water 2014, 6(2), 414-433; doi:10.3390/w6020414
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To move towards sustainable development, the mining industry needs to identify better mine water management practices for reducing raw water use, increasing water use efficiency, and eliminating environmental impacts in a precondition of securing mining production. However, the selection of optimal mine [...] Read more.
To move towards sustainable development, the mining industry needs to identify better mine water management practices for reducing raw water use, increasing water use efficiency, and eliminating environmental impacts in a precondition of securing mining production. However, the selection of optimal mine water management practices is technically challenging due to the lack of scientific tools to comprehensively evaluate management options against a set of conflicting criteria. This work has provided a solution to aid the identification of more sustainable mine water management practices. The solution includes a conceptual framework for forming a decision hierarchy; an evaluation method for assessing mine water management practices; and a sensitivity analysis in view of different preferences of stakeholders or managers. The solution is applied to a case study of the evaluation of sustainable water management practices in 16 mines located in the Bowen Basin in Queensland, Australia. The evaluation results illustrate the usefulness of the proposed solution. A sensitivity analysis is performed according to preference weights of stakeholders or managers. Some measures are provided for assessing sensitivity of strategy ranking outcomes if the weight of an indicator changes. Finally, some advice is given to improve the mine water management in some mines. Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom
Water 2014, 6(2), 367-380; doi:10.3390/w6020367
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
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Abstract
Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies [...] Read more.
Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature) were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam. Full article
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