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Water, Volume 6, Issue 3 (March 2014), Pages 439-744

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Management of Tundra Wastewater Treatment Wetlands within a Lagoon/Wetland Hybridized Treatment System Using the SubWet 2.0 Wetland Model
Water 2014, 6(3), 439-454; doi:10.3390/w6030439
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 21 February 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The benefits provided by natural (e.g., non-engineered) tundra wetlands for the treatment of municipal wastewater in the Canadian Arctic are largely under-studied and, therefore, undervalued in regard to the treatment service wetlands provide to small remote Arctic communities. In this paper we [...] Read more.
The benefits provided by natural (e.g., non-engineered) tundra wetlands for the treatment of municipal wastewater in the Canadian Arctic are largely under-studied and, therefore, undervalued in regard to the treatment service wetlands provide to small remote Arctic communities. In this paper we present case studies on two natural tundra systems which at the time of study had different management practices, in which one consisted of a facultative lake system continuously discharging into a tundra wetland, while the second system had wastewater discharged directly into a tundra wetland. We also examine the utility of the SubWet 2.0 wetland model and how it can be used to: (i) predict the outcomes of management options; and (ii) to assess treatment capacity within individual tundra wetlands to meet future needs associated with population growth and to help municipalities determine the appropriate actions required to achieve the desired level of treatment, both currently, and in a sustainable long-term manner. From this examination we argue that tundra wetlands can significantly augment common treatment practices which rely on waste stabilization ponds, by recognizing the services that wetlands already provide. We suggest that treatment targets could be more achievable if tundra wetlands are formally recognized as part of a hybridized treatment system that incorporates the combined benefits of both the waste stabilization pond and the tundra wetland. Under this scenario tundra wetlands would be recognized as part of the treatment process and not as the ‘receiving’ environment, which is how most tundra wetlands are currently categorized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle A Web-Based Model to Estimate the Impact of Best Management Practices
Water 2014, 6(3), 455-471; doi:10.3390/w6030455
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Spreadsheet Tool for the Estimation of Pollutant Load (STEPL) can be used for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) processes, since the model is capable of simulating the impacts of various best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. The [...] Read more.
The Spreadsheet Tool for the Estimation of Pollutant Load (STEPL) can be used for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) processes, since the model is capable of simulating the impacts of various best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. The model computes average annual direct runoff using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method with average rainfall per event, which is not a typical use of the SCS-CN method. Five SCS-CN-based approaches to compute average annual direct runoff were investigated to explore estimated differences in average annual direct runoff computations using daily precipitation data collected from the National Climate Data Center and generated by the CLIGEN model for twelve stations in Indiana. Compared to the average annual direct runoff computed for the typical use of the SCS-CN method, the approaches to estimate average annual direct runoff within EPA STEPL showed large differences. A web-based model (STEPL WEB) was developed with a corrected approach to estimate average annual direct runoff. Moreover, the model was integrated with the Web-based Load Duration Curve Tool, which identifies the least cost BMPs for each land use and optimizes BMP selection to identify the most cost-effective BMP implementations. The integrated tools provide an easy to use approach for performing TMDL analysis and identifying cost-effective approaches for controlling nonpoint source pollution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Integration of a Hydrological Model within a Geographical Information System: Application to a Forest Watershed
Water 2014, 6(3), 500-516; doi:10.3390/w6030500
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Watershed simulation software used for operational purposes must possess both dependability of results and flexibility in parameter selection and testing. The UBC watershed model (UBCWM) contains a wide spectrum of parameters expressing meteorological, geological, as well as ecological watershed characteristics. The hydrological [...] Read more.
Watershed simulation software used for operational purposes must possess both dependability of results and flexibility in parameter selection and testing. The UBC watershed model (UBCWM) contains a wide spectrum of parameters expressing meteorological, geological, as well as ecological watershed characteristics. The hydrological model was coupled to the MapInfo GIS and the software created was named Watershed Mapper (WM). WM is endowed with several features permitting operational utilization. These include input data and basin geometry visualization, land use/cover and soil simulation, exporting of statistical results and thematic maps and interactive variation of disputed parameters. For the application of WM two hypothetical scenarios of forest fires were examined in a study watershed. Four major rainfall events were selected from 12-year daily precipitation data and the corresponding peak flows were estimated for the base line data and hypothetical scenarios. A significant increase was observed as an impact of forest fires on peak flows. Due to its flexibility the combined tool described herein may be utilized in modeling long-term hydrological changes in the context of unsteady hydrological analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Integrated River and Coastal Hydrodynamic Flood Risk Mapping of the LaHave River Estuary and Town of Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, Canada
Water 2014, 6(3), 517-546; doi:10.3390/w6030517
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, is located 20 km inland from the mouth of the LaHave River estuary on the Atlantic Coast of Canada. Bridgewater is at risk of flooding due to the combined effects of river runoff and a storm surge on top [...] Read more.
Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, is located 20 km inland from the mouth of the LaHave River estuary on the Atlantic Coast of Canada. Bridgewater is at risk of flooding due to the combined effects of river runoff and a storm surge on top of high tide. Projected increases in sea-level and possible increased river runoff with climate change increase the risk of future flooding. A set of river and ocean water level simulations were carried out to determine the risk of flooding to Bridgewater today and in the future under climate change. The hydrodynamic simulation developed incorporates return periods of a time series of river discharge measurements for the LaHave watershed, ocean water dynamics at the mouth of the river under normal tidal conditions and with two levels of storm surge, near shore and river bathymetry, as well as high precision topographic lidar derived ground elevations and survey grade GPS. The study was supported by data from two tide gauge sensors, and qualitative evidence provided by the community such as historical flood levels and photographs. Results show that areas upstream of the town are vulnerable to large discharge events of the LaHave River. The downtown waterfront and infrastructure are not susceptible to fluvial flooding, but is vulnerable to sea-level rise and storm surge flooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Estimation and Analysis in a Variable and Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle Exploring China’s Farmer-Level Water-Saving Mechanisms: Analysis of an Experiment Conducted in Taocheng District, Hebei Province
Water 2014, 6(3), 547-563; doi:10.3390/w6030547
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two types of farmer-level mechanisms have been traditionally adopted to increase agricultural water use efficiency in northern China: pricing mechanisms and tradable water rights systems. However, the reluctance of policymakers to exacerbate farmers’ burdens has rendered pricing mechanisms politically infeasible, while tradable [...] Read more.
Two types of farmer-level mechanisms have been traditionally adopted to increase agricultural water use efficiency in northern China: pricing mechanisms and tradable water rights systems. However, the reluctance of policymakers to exacerbate farmers’ burdens has rendered pricing mechanisms politically infeasible, while tradable water rights systems involve prohibitively high transaction costs in rural China. An experiment conducted in 2005 in the Taocheng District of Hebei Province created a new kind of water-saving mechanism that involves a number of institutional innovations, including “flexible total management”, “collect then refund” and “collect and subsidize, then refund”. This paper evaluates the district’s water-saving mechanisms based on efficiency, equity and operability criteria. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the “collect then refund” mechanism can more effectively enhance water use efficiency and reduce farmers’ burdens than water pricing instruments, tradable water rights systems and flexible total management. Adequate infrastructure and trusted institutions are identified as necessary prerequisites for the successful implementation of the new water-saving mechanism. We believe the new mechanism has great potential to be scaled up. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Hydrograph-Based Sediment Availability Assessment: Implications for Mississippi River Sediment Diversion
Water 2014, 6(3), 564-583; doi:10.3390/w6030564
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mississippi River Delta Plain has undergone substantial land loss caused by subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and loss of connectivity to the Mississippi River. Many restoration projects rely on diversions from the Mississippi River, but uncertainty exists about the timing and the [...] Read more.
The Mississippi River Delta Plain has undergone substantial land loss caused by subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and loss of connectivity to the Mississippi River. Many restoration projects rely on diversions from the Mississippi River, but uncertainty exists about the timing and the amount of actually available sediment. This study examined long-term (1980–2010) suspended sediment yield as affected by different hydrologic regimes to determine actual suspended sediment availability and how this may affect diversion management. A stage hydrograph-based approach was employed to quantify total suspended sediment load (SSL) of the lower Mississippi River at Tarbert Landing during three river flow conditions: Peak Flow Stage (stage = 16.8 m, discharge >32,000 m3 s−1), High Flow Stage (stage = 14.6 m, discharge = 25,000–32,000 m3 s−1), and Intermediate Flow Stage (Stage = 12.1 m, discharge = 18,000–25,000 m3 s−1). Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and SSL were maximized during High Flow and Intermediate Flow Stages, accounting for approximately 50% of the total annual sediment yield, even though duration of the stages accounted for only one-third of a year. Peak Flow Stage had the highest discharge, but significantly lower SSC (p < 0.05), indicating that diversion of the river at this stage would be less effective for sediment capture. The lower Mississippi River showed significantly higher SSC (p < 0.0001) and SSL (p < 0.0001) during the rising than the receding limb. When the flood pulse was rising, Intermediate Flow and High Flow Stages showed greater SSC and SSL than Peak Flow Stage. Together, Intermediate Flow and High Flow Stages on the rising limb annually discharged 28 megatonnes over approximately 42 days, identifying this to be the best period for sediment capture and diversion. Full article
Open AccessArticle Submarine Groundwater Discharge at a Single Spot Location: Evaluation of Different Detection Approaches
Water 2014, 6(3), 584-601; doi:10.3390/w6030584
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the ocean is of general interest because it acts as vehicle for the transport of dissolved contaminants and/or nutrients into the coastal sea and because it may be accompanied by the loss of significant volumes of freshwater. [...] Read more.
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the ocean is of general interest because it acts as vehicle for the transport of dissolved contaminants and/or nutrients into the coastal sea and because it may be accompanied by the loss of significant volumes of freshwater. Due to the large-scale and long-term nature of the related hydrological processes, environmental tracers are required for SGD investigation. The water parameters of electrical conductivity and temperature, the naturally occurring radionuclides of radon and radium as well as the stable water isotopes 18O and 2H have proven in previous studies their general suitability for the detection and quantification of SGD. However, individual hydrogeological settings require a site-specific application of this “tool box”. This study evaluates and compares the applicability of the abovementioned tracers for investigating SGD from a distinct submarine source in a karst environment at Cabbé, southern France. The specific advantages and disadvantages of each individual parameter under the given hydrogeological conditions are discussed. Radon appeared to be the most suitable environmental tracer in the site specific context. The water temperature was less reliable due to the little temperature difference between seawater and groundwater and since the diurnal variation of the air temperature masks potential SGD signals. Radium isotopes are less applicable in the studied region due to the lack of a well-developed subterranean estuary. The stable water isotopes showed results consistent with the salinity and radon data; however, the significantly higher effort required for stable isotope analyses is disadvantageous. A multi-temporal thermal remote sensing approach proved to be a powerful tool for initial SGD surveying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tracers) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Spatial Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Groundwater beneath Two Large On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems
Water 2014, 6(3), 602-619; doi:10.3390/w6030602
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWS) are a common means of wastewater treatment in coastal North Carolina, where the soils are sandy and groundwater is relatively close to the surface (<5 m). Wastewater contains elevated concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate groundwater [...] Read more.
On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWS) are a common means of wastewater treatment in coastal North Carolina, where the soils are sandy and groundwater is relatively close to the surface (<5 m). Wastewater contains elevated concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate groundwater and surface water if OWS are not operating efficiently and distributing wastewater equally to all drainfield trenches. The objectives of this study were to compare the distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in groundwater beneath a large low-pressure pipe (LPP) OWS and a large pump to distribution box system, and to determine the effectiveness of the systems in reducing FIB including total coliform, E. coli, and enterococci. Monitoring wells were installed at the fronts and ends of the drainfields for sample collection. Groundwater beneath the LPP had a more homogeneous spatial distribution of E. coli and enterococci concentrations and the specific conductivity of groundwater was also more uniform relative to groundwater beneath the distribution box system. Both systems were effective (>99%) at reducing FIB concentrations before discharge to groundwater. Results indicate that the LPP did enhance the distribution of FIB in groundwater beneath the drainfield area relative to the pump to distribution box system. Although the LPP system had a vadose zone over 2 m thinner than the pump to distribution box system, FIB treatment was similar. Enterococci was the most resilient FIB of the three tested. Full article
Open AccessArticle Wetland Planning: Current Problems and Environmental Management Proposals at Supra-Municipal Scale (Spanish Mediterranean Coast)
Water 2014, 6(3), 620-641; doi:10.3390/w6030620
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The policies that define the use and management of wetlands in Spain have undergone tremendous changes in recent decades. During the period of 1950–1980, Land Reform Plans promoted filling and draining of these areas for agricultural use. In 1986, with the incorporation [...] Read more.
The policies that define the use and management of wetlands in Spain have undergone tremendous changes in recent decades. During the period of 1950–1980, Land Reform Plans promoted filling and draining of these areas for agricultural use. In 1986, with the incorporation of Spain to the European Union (EU), there was a sudden change of direction in these policies, which, thereafter, pursued restoring and protecting these ecosystems. This change, combined with increasing urban development and infrastructure pressures (e.g., roads, golf courses, etc.), creates a conflict of uses which complicates the management of these ecosystems by local governments. This study analyzes the effectiveness of policies and management tools of important coastal wetlands at the local scale in the Valencian Community (Western Mediterranean Sea) using a strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats (SWOT) methodology. A supra-municipal model of environmental planning is proposed to enable consistent management at a regional scale. This model enhances local government’s effectiveness and it can be applied in other areas with similar problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong
Water 2014, 6(3), 642-660; doi:10.3390/w6030642
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color [...] Read more.
Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS) were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces
Water 2014, 6(3), 661-669; doi:10.3390/w6030661
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 18 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary [...] Read more.
Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels). This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays) and Porous Asphalt (9 bays) surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain) 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Drainage Systems) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Subjectivities in the Regulation of Local Water Services: A Q-Methodology Study of Elected Public Officers in Italy
Water 2014, 6(3), 670-693; doi:10.3390/w6030670
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 9 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In sub-national governments, elected public officers can exercise considerable influence on the regulation of local water services, in such ways as, for example, contributing to the design of local regulatory institutions, to the formulation of tariff rules, and to the supervision of [...] Read more.
In sub-national governments, elected public officers can exercise considerable influence on the regulation of local water services, in such ways as, for example, contributing to the design of local regulatory institutions, to the formulation of tariff rules, and to the supervision of water firms. Relatively little we know, however, about how elected public officers think about the regulation of local water services. This Q methodology study provides some evidence of the variety of opinions held on how local water services are delivered, how well they perform, and how they should be regulated among elected public officers in local governments in Italy. The study shows that the policy discourse on water regulation in Italy is highly fragmented into alternative and partially conflicting views. These findings bear some relevance for better understanding sources of stability and change of water regulatory regimes at the local level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detecting Emergence, Growth, and Senescence of Wetland Vegetation with Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data
Water 2014, 6(3), 694-722; doi:10.3390/w6030694
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (8235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wetlands provide ecosystem goods and services vitally important to humans. Land managers and policymakers working to conserve wetlands require regularly updated information on the statuses of wetlands across the landscape. However, wetlands are challenging to map remotely with high accuracy and consistency. [...] Read more.
Wetlands provide ecosystem goods and services vitally important to humans. Land managers and policymakers working to conserve wetlands require regularly updated information on the statuses of wetlands across the landscape. However, wetlands are challenging to map remotely with high accuracy and consistency. We investigated the use of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired with Canada’s Radarsat-2 system to track within-season changes in wetland vegetation and surface water. We speculated, a priori, how temporal and morphological traits of different types of wetland vegetation should respond over a growing season with respect to four energy-scattering mechanisms. We used ground-based monitoring data and other ancillary information to assess the limits and consistency of the SAR data for tracking seasonal changes in wetlands. We found the traits of different types of vertical emergent wetland vegetation were detected well with the SAR data and corresponded with our anticipated backscatter responses. We also found using data from Landsat’s optical/infrared sensors in conjunction with SAR data helped remove confusion of wetland features with upland grasslands. These results suggest SAR data can provide useful monitoring information on the statuses of wetlands over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Water Trading: Locational Water Rights, Economic Efficiency, and Third-Party Effect
Water 2014, 6(3), 723-744; doi:10.3390/w6030723
Received: 9 November 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rivers flow downstream and unidirectionally. However, this fact has not yet been utilized in the institutional design for water trading. By utilizing this characteristic, we first designed a water trading system of “locational water rights.” This new system is able to mitigate [...] Read more.
Rivers flow downstream and unidirectionally. However, this fact has not yet been utilized in the institutional design for water trading. By utilizing this characteristic, we first designed a water trading system of “locational water rights.” This new system is able to mitigate the return flow-related and instream flow-related third-party effects of volumetric reliability from water transfers. We provided mathematical proof of its economic efficiency. We then applied this water trading system to the case of the Choushui River basin in Taiwan. In this area, agriculture is highly developed while domestic and industrial water demands have increased rapidly. Using an agent-based model simulation, we estimated the potential economic benefits of implementing the system of locational water rights in the Choushui River basin. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology
Water 2014, 6(3), 472-499; doi:10.3390/w6030472
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF) coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much [...] Read more.
Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF) coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve. Full article

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