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Water 2014, 6(2), 367-380; doi:10.3390/w6020367
Review

Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom

Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
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Abstract

Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature) were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.
Keywords: activated carbon; bund system; filtration; fire fighting; foam; pump; run-off; pump; water quality; Web of Knowledge activated carbon; bund system; filtration; fire fighting; foam; pump; run-off; pump; water quality; Web of Knowledge
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Scholz, M. Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom. Water 2014, 6, 367-380.

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