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Genes 2017, 8(10), 273; doi:10.3390/genes8100273

The History of Tree and Shrub Taxa on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago) since the Last Interglacial Uncovered by Sedimentary Ancient DNA and Pollen Data

1
Alfred-Wegener-Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Periglacial Research Unit, Telegrafenberg A43, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
2
Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
3
Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Hofreiter
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Neglected Areas of Ancient DNA Research)
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Abstract

Ecosystem boundaries, such as the Arctic-Boreal treeline, are strongly coupled with climate and were spatially highly dynamic during past glacial-interglacial cycles. Only a few studies cover vegetation changes since the last interglacial, as most of the former landscapes are inundated and difficult to access. Using pollen analysis and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding, we reveal vegetation changes on Bol’shoy Lyakhovsky Island since the last interglacial from permafrost sediments. Last interglacial samples depict high levels of floral diversity with the presence of trees (Larix, Picea, Populus) and shrubs (Alnus, Betula, Ribes, Cornus, Saliceae) on the currently treeless island. After the Last Glacial Maximum, Larix re-colonised the island but disappeared along with most shrub taxa. This was probably caused by Holocene sea-level rise, which led to increased oceanic conditions on the island. Additionally, we applied two newly developed larch-specific chloroplast markers to evaluate their potential for tracking past population dynamics from environmental samples. The novel markers were successfully re-sequenced and exhibited two variants of each marker in last interglacial samples. SedaDNA can track vegetation changes as well as genetic changes across geographic space through time and can improve our understanding of past processes that shape modern patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: sedaDNA; metabarcoding; trnL; single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); treeline; MIS 5 to 1; permafrost deposits; radiocarbon ages; palaeoenvironment; Larix sedaDNA; metabarcoding; trnL; single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); treeline; MIS 5 to 1; permafrost deposits; radiocarbon ages; palaeoenvironment; Larix
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zimmermann, H.H.; Raschke, E.; Epp, L.S.; Stoof-Leichsenring, K.R.; Schirrmeister, L.; Schwamborn, G.; Herzschuh, U. The History of Tree and Shrub Taxa on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago) since the Last Interglacial Uncovered by Sedimentary Ancient DNA and Pollen Data. Genes 2017, 8, 273.

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