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Nutrients, Volume 3, Issue 1 (January 2011), Pages 1-185

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 1-26; doi:10.3390/nu3010001
Received: 12 November 2010 / Revised: 16 December 2010 / Accepted: 28 December 2010 / Published: 30 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill
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The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Higher Diet Quality Does Not Predict Lower Medicare Costs but Does Predict Number of Claims in Mid-Aged Australian Women
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 40-48; doi:10.3390/nu3010040
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 7 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 7 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optimal dietary quality, indicated by higher diet quality index scores, reflects greater adherence to National dietary recommendations and is also associated with lower morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Whether this is reflected in lower health care cost over time has rarely been
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Optimal dietary quality, indicated by higher diet quality index scores, reflects greater adherence to National dietary recommendations and is also associated with lower morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Whether this is reflected in lower health care cost over time has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to examine whether higher diet quality, as measured by the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), was associated with lower health care costs within the mid-aged cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We found that there was a statistically significant association between five year cumulative costs and ARFS, but in the opposite direction to that predicted, with those in the highest quintiles of ARFS having higher health care costs. However the number of Medicare claims over the six year period (2002–2007) was lower for those in the highest compared with the lowest quintile, p = 0.002. There is a need to monitor both costs and claims over time to examine health care usage in the longer term in order to determine whether savings are eventually obtained for those with the dietary patterns that adhere more closely to National recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Folate Status of Reproductive Age Women and Neural Tube Defect Risk: The Effect of Long-Term Folic Acid Supplementation at Doses of 140 µg and 400 µg per Day
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 49-62; doi:10.3390/nu3010049
Received: 22 November 2010 / Revised: 13 December 2010 / Accepted: 7 January 2011 / Published: 10 January 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Primary prevention of most folate-responsive neural tube defects (NTDs) may not require 400 μg folic acid/day but may be achieved by attaining a high maternal folate status. Using RBC folate ≥ 906 nmol/L as a marker for NTD risk reduction, the study aimed
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Primary prevention of most folate-responsive neural tube defects (NTDs) may not require 400 μg folic acid/day but may be achieved by attaining a high maternal folate status. Using RBC folate ≥ 906 nmol/L as a marker for NTD risk reduction, the study aimed to determine the change in blood folate concentrations in reproductive age women in response to long-term folic acid supplementation at 400 µg/day and 140 µg/day (dose designed to mimic the average daily folic acid intake received from New Zealand’s proposed mandatory bread fortification program). Participants were randomly assigned to a daily folic acid supplement of 140 µg (n = 49), 400 µg (n = 48) or placebo (n = 47) for 40 weeks. RBC folate concentrations were measured at baseline, and after 6, 12, 29 and 40 weeks. At 40 weeks, the overall prevalence of having a RBC folate < 906 nmol/L decreased to 18% and 35% in the 400 µg and 140 µg groups, respectively, while remaining relatively unchanged at 58% in the placebo group. After 40 weeks, there was no evidence of a difference in RBC folate between the two treatment groups (P = 0.340), nor was there evidence of a difference in the odds of a RBC folate < 906 nmol/L (P = 0.078). In conclusion, the average daily intake of folic acid received from the proposed fortification program would increase RBC folate concentrations in reproductive age women to levels associated with a low risk of NTDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 135-151; doi:10.3390/nu3010135
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 12 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated
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In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Fatty Acid Reference Ranges: Percentiles from a New Zealand National Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 152-163; doi:10.3390/nu3010152
Received: 26 November 2010 / Revised: 29 December 2010 / Accepted: 4 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Serum fatty acids are increasingly used in cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies as biomarkers of dietary fat intake; however, it is currently difficult to judge whether an individual has low or high fatty acid status, or whether the distribution of fatty acids of
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Serum fatty acids are increasingly used in cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies as biomarkers of dietary fat intake; however, it is currently difficult to judge whether an individual has low or high fatty acid status, or whether the distribution of fatty acids of a group of people is low or high due to a lack of appropriate reference values. In the absence of interpretive criteria, the distribution of serum fatty acids from a suitable reference population can be used as an alternative. We describe the distribution of the fatty acid composition of the three most commonly reported lipid classes in serum; cholesterol ester, phospholipid and triacylgycerol. Results for each serum lipid class are presented as means (SD) and percentiles (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95) of serum fatty acids in non-fasting blood samples collected from a population based cross-sectional survey of New Zealand adults (n = 2793). These serum fatty acid reference ranges are applicable and relevant to Australia, United Kingdom, and United States as well as other countries where fat intakes are similar to New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Vitamin A Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Biology
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 27-39; doi:10.3390/nu3010027
Received: 20 November 2010 / Revised: 14 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 6 January 2011
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the importance of vitamin A in adipose tissue biology, obesity and type II diabetes has become apparent. This review focuses on recent developments within the area of vitamin A and adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue has an active vitamin A
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In recent years, the importance of vitamin A in adipose tissue biology, obesity and type II diabetes has become apparent. This review focuses on recent developments within the area of vitamin A and adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue has an active vitamin A metabolism as it not only stores vitamin A but retinol is also converted to its active metabolite retinoic acid. Several mouse models point to a relationship between vitamin A metabolism and the development of adiposity. Similarly, in vitro studies provide new molecular mechanisms for the function of different forms of vitamin A and retinol- or retinoic acid-binding proteins in adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A Metabolism: An Update
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 63-103; doi:10.3390/nu3010063
Received: 26 November 2010 / Revised: 24 December 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 140 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions. In excess of 500 genes are thought to be regulated by retinoic acid.
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Retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions. In excess of 500 genes are thought to be regulated by retinoic acid. 11-cis-retinal serves as the visual chromophore in vision. The body must acquire retinoid from the diet in order to maintain these essential physiological processes. Retinoid metabolism is complex and involves many different retinoid forms, including retinyl esters, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid and oxidized and conjugated metabolites of both retinol and retinoic acid. In addition, retinoid metabolism involves many carrier proteins and enzymes that are specific to retinoid metabolism, as well as other proteins which may be involved in mediating also triglyceride and/or cholesterol metabolism. This review will focus on recent advances for understanding retinoid metabolism that have taken place in the last ten to fifteen years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update)
Open AccessReview Effect of Lactobacilli on Paracellular Permeability in the Gut
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 104-117; doi:10.3390/nu3010104
Received: 2 December 2010 / Revised: 28 December 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paracellular permeability is determined by the complex structures of junctions that are located between the epithelial cells. Already in 1996, it was shown that the human probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and the rat-originating strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC could reduce this permeability in a
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Paracellular permeability is determined by the complex structures of junctions that are located between the epithelial cells. Already in 1996, it was shown that the human probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and the rat-originating strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC could reduce this permeability in a methotrexate-induced colitis model in the rat. Subsequently, many animal models and cell culture systems have shown indications that lactobacilli are able to counteract increased paracellular permeability evoked by cytokines, chemicals, infections, or stress. There have been few human studies focusing on the effect of lactobacilli on intestinal paracellular permeability but recently it has been shown that they could influence the tight junctions. More precisely, short-term administration of L. plantarum WCSF1 to healthy volunteers increased the relocation of occludin and ZO-1 into the tight junction area between duodenal epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 118-134; doi:10.3390/nu3010118
Received: 3 December 2010 / Revised: 24 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 18 January 2011
Cited by 76 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the
[...] Read more.
Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Risk Assessment to Underpin Food Regulatory Decisions: An Example of Public Health Nutritional Epidemiology
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 164-185; doi:10.3390/nu3010164
Received: 7 December 2010 / Revised: 9 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The approach used by food regulation agencies to examine the literature and forecast the impact of possible food regulations has many similar features to the approach used in nutritional epidemiological research. We outline the Risk Analysis Framework described by FAO/WHO, in which there
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The approach used by food regulation agencies to examine the literature and forecast the impact of possible food regulations has many similar features to the approach used in nutritional epidemiological research. We outline the Risk Analysis Framework described by FAO/WHO, in which there is formal progression from identification of the nutrient or food chemical of interest, through to describing its effect on health and then assessing whether there is a risk to the population based on dietary exposure estimates. We then discuss some important considerations for the dietary modeling component of the Framework, including several methodological issues that also exist in research nutritional epidemiology. Finally, we give several case studies that illustrate how the different methodological components are used together to inform decisions about how to manage the regulatory problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)
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