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Viruses, Volume 5, Issue 12 (December 2013), Pages 2920-3230

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle First Isolation of a Giant Virus from Wild Hirudo medicinalis Leech: Mimiviridae isolation in Hirudo medicinalis
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2920-2930; doi:10.3390/v5122920
Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Giant viruses and amoebae are common in freshwater, where they can coexist with other living multicellular organisms. We screened leeches from the species Hirudo medicinalis for giant viruses. We analyzed five H. medicinalis obtained from Tunisia (3) and France (2). The leeches [...] Read more.
Giant viruses and amoebae are common in freshwater, where they can coexist with other living multicellular organisms. We screened leeches from the species Hirudo medicinalis for giant viruses. We analyzed five H. medicinalis obtained from Tunisia (3) and France (2). The leeches were decontaminated and then dissected to remove internal parts for co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga. The genomes of isolated viruses were sequenced on a 454 Roche instrument, and a comparative genomics analysis was performed. One Mimivirus was isolated and the strain was named Hirudovirus. The genome assembly generated two scaffolds, which were 1,155,382 and 25,660 base pairs in length. Functional annotations were identified for 47% of the genes, which corresponds to 466 proteins. The presence of Mimividae in the same ecological niche as wild Hirudo may explain the presence of the mimivirus in the digestive tract of the leech, and several studies have already shown that viruses can persist in the digestive tracts of leeches fed contaminated blood. As leeches can be used medically and Mimiviruses have the potential to be an infectious agent in humans, patients treated with leeches should be surveyed to investigate a possible connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Effects and Effectiveness of Two RNAi Constructs for Resistance to Pepper golden mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2931-2945; doi:10.3390/v5122931
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ToChLPV and PepGMV are Begomoviruses that have adapted to a wide host range and are able to cause major diseases in agronomic crops. We analyzed the efficacy of induced resistance to PepGMV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with two constructs: one construct with [...] Read more.
ToChLPV and PepGMV are Begomoviruses that have adapted to a wide host range and are able to cause major diseases in agronomic crops. We analyzed the efficacy of induced resistance to PepGMV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with two constructs: one construct with homologous sequences derived from PepGMV, and the other construct with heterologous sequences derived from ToChLPV. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed an efficacy to decrease the severity of symptoms of 45%, while plants protected with the homologous construct showed an efficacy of 80%. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed a reduction of incidence of 42.86%, while the reduction of incidence in plants protected with the homologous construct was 57.15%. The efficacy to decrease viral load was 95.6% in plants protected with the heterologous construct, and 99.56% in plants protected with the homologous construct. We found, in both constructs, up-regulated key components of the RNAi pathway. This demonstrates that the efficacy of the constructs was due to the activation of the gene silencing mechanism, and is reflected in the decrease of viral genome copies, as well as in recovery phenotype. We present evidence that both constructs are functional and can efficiently induce transient resistance against PepGMV infections. This observation guarantees a further exploration as a strategy to control complex Begomovirus diseases in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization of Major Structural Protein Genes of Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolates in Southern China
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3007-3020; doi:10.3390/v5123007
Received: 29 September 2013 / Revised: 9 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To gain comprehensive genetic information of circulating avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in China, analysis of the phylogenetic tree, entropy of the amino acid sequences, and the positive selection as well as computational recombinations of S1, M and N genes [...] Read more.
To gain comprehensive genetic information of circulating avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in China, analysis of the phylogenetic tree, entropy of the amino acid sequences, and the positive selection as well as computational recombinations of S1, M and N genes of 23 IBV isolates was conducted in the present study. The phylogenetic trees based on the S1, M and N genes exhibited considerably different topology and the CK/CH/LSC/99I-type isolates were the predominant IBVs based on the phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene. Results of entropy of amino acid sequences revealed that the S1 gene had the largest variation; the M gene had less variation than the N gene. Positive selections were detected in not only S1 but also M and N gene proteins. In addition, five S1 gene recombinants between vaccine strain 4/91 and CK/CH/LSC/99I-type field isolate were confirmed. In conclusion, multiple IBV genotypes co-circulated; genetic diversity and positive selections existed in S1, M and N genes; 4/91 vaccine recombinants emerged in China. Our results show that field IBVs in China are continuing to evolve and vaccine strains may have an important role in the appearance of new IBV strains via recombination. In addition, the present study indicates that IBV evolution is driven by both generations of genetic diversity and selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Arteriviruses and Coronaviruses)
Open AccessArticle Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3071-3087; doi:10.3390/v5123071
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been [...] Read more.
Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus),M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3088-3108; doi:10.3390/v5123088
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks [...] Read more.
Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. Prior to 1995, the last major human WNV outbreak was in the 1950s in Israel. The epidemiology and ecology of WNV began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in Romania. The introduction of WNV into Eastern Europe was readily explained by bird migration between Africa and Europe. The movement of WNV from Africa to Europe could not, however, predict its surprising jump across the Atlantic Ocean to New York City and the surrounding areas of the United States (U.S.). This movement of WNV from the Eastern to Western Hemisphere in 1999, and its subsequent dissemination throughout two continents in less than ten years is widely recognized as one of the most significant events in arbovirology during the last two centuries. This paper documents the early events of the introduction into and the spread of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
Open AccessArticle Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Dobrava/Belgrade Virus Infections
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3109-3118; doi:10.3390/v5123109
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) were estimated in 102 serum samples from 63 hospitalized Greek patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Dobrava/Belgrade virus. Significantly higher VEGF levels were seen in the severe when compared with [...] Read more.
The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) were estimated in 102 serum samples from 63 hospitalized Greek patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Dobrava/Belgrade virus. Significantly higher VEGF levels were seen in the severe when compared with non-severe cases (mean values 851.96 pg/mL and 326.75 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.003), while a significant difference was observed among groups based on the day after the onset of illness. In both severe and non-severe cases, VEGF peaked in the second week of illness; however, elevation of VEGF in the severe cases started later and remained high until convalescence, suggesting that the role of VEGF was associated with repair of vascular damage rather than with increased permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle The p36 Isoform of Murine Cytomegalovirus m152 Protein Suffices for Mediating Innate and Adaptive Immune Evasion
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3171-3191; doi:10.3390/v5123171
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with [...] Read more.
The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with classical MHC-I molecules and with MHC-I-like RAE1 family ligands of the activatory natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D, it inhibits presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells and the NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells, respectively, thus simultaneously interfering with adaptive and innate immune recognition of infected cells. Although the m152 gene product exists in differentially glycosylated isoforms whose individual contributions to immune evasion are unknown, it has entered the scientific literature as m152/gp40, based on the quantitatively most prominent isoform but with no functional justification. By construction of a recombinant mCMV in which all three N-glycosylation sites are mutated (N61Q, N208Q, and N241Q), we show here that N-linked glycosylation is not essential for functional interaction of the m152 immune evasion protein with either MHC-I or RAE1. These data add an important functional detail to recent structural analysis of the m152/RAE1g complex that has revealed N-glycosylations at positions Asn61 and Asn208 of m152 distant from the m152/RAE1g interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3213-3230; doi:10.3390/v5123213
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 8 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of [...] Read more.
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Genetic Modification of Hematopoietic Stem Cells as a Therapy for HIV/AIDS
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2946-2962; doi:10.3390/v5122946
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The combination of genetic modification and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation may provide the necessary means to develop an alternative treatment option to conventional antiretroviral therapy. As HSCs give rise to all hematopoietic cell types susceptible to HIV infection, modification of HSCs [...] Read more.
The combination of genetic modification and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation may provide the necessary means to develop an alternative treatment option to conventional antiretroviral therapy. As HSCs give rise to all hematopoietic cell types susceptible to HIV infection, modification of HSCs is an ideal strategy for the development of infection-resistant immune cell populations. Although promising results have been obtained in multiple animal models, additional evidence is needed to convincingly demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment of HIV-1 infected patients. Here, we review the potential of HSC transplantation and the recently identified limitations of this approach. Using the Berlin Patient as a model for a functional cure, we contrast the confines of autologous versus allogeneic transplantation. Finally, we suggest that although autologous, gene-modified HSC-transplantation may significantly reduce plasma viremia, reaching the lower detection limits currently obtainable through daily HAART will remain a challenging endeavor that will require innovative combinatorial therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy for Retroviral Infections)
Open AccessReview Lessons in AIDS Vaccine Development Learned from Studies of Equine Infectious, Anemia Virus Infection and Immunity
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2963-2976; doi:10.3390/v5122963
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 20 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Equine infectious anemia (EIA), identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research [...] Read more.
Equine infectious anemia (EIA), identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env) proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic disease presentation that has facilitated comprehensive analyses of the interactions between the evolving virus population, progressive host immune responses, and the definition of viral and host correlates of immune control and vaccine efficacy. Summarized here are key findings in EIAV that have provided important lessons toward understanding long term immune control of lentivirus infections and the parameters for development of an enduring broadly protective AIDS vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessReview West Nile Virus Drug Discovery
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2977-3006; doi:10.3390/v5122977
Received: 3 October 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV [...] Read more.
The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
Open AccessReview Vector-Virus Interactions and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3021-3047; doi:10.3390/v5123021
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 9 December 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae) is the cause of the most widespread arthropod-borne viral disease in the world and the largest outbreak of neuroinvasive disease ever observed. Mosquito-borne outbreaks are influenced by intrinsic (e.g., vector and viral genetics, vector [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae) is the cause of the most widespread arthropod-borne viral disease in the world and the largest outbreak of neuroinvasive disease ever observed. Mosquito-borne outbreaks are influenced by intrinsic (e.g., vector and viral genetics, vector and host competence, vector life-history traits) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature, rainfall, human land use) factors that affect virus activity and mosquito biology in complex ways. The concept of vectorial capacity integrates these factors to address interactions of the virus with the arthropod host, leading to a clearer understanding of their complex interrelationships, how they affect transmission of vector-borne disease, and how they impact human health. Vertebrate factors including host competence, population dynamics, and immune status also affect transmission dynamics. The complexity of these interactions are further exacerbated by the fact that not only can divergent hosts differentially alter the virus, but the virus also can affect both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in ways that significantly alter patterns of virus transmission. This chapter concentrates on selected components of the virus-vector-vertebrate interrelationship, focusing specifically on how interactions between vector, virus, and environment shape the patterns and intensity of WNV transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessReview Preclinical and Clinical Development of a YFV 17 D-Based Chimeric Vaccine against West Nile Virus
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3048-3070; doi:10.3390/v5123048
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 9 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Substantial success has been achieved in the development and implementation of West Nile (WN) vaccines for horses; however, no human WN vaccines are approved. This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine [...] Read more.
Substantial success has been achieved in the development and implementation of West Nile (WN) vaccines for horses; however, no human WN vaccines are approved. This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that ChimeriVax-WN02 was significantly less neurovirulent than YF 17D in mice and rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. Safety, viremia and immunogenicity of ChimeriVax-WN02 were assessed in one phase I study and in two phase II clinical trials. No safety signals were detected in the three clinical trials with no remarkable differences in incidence of adverse events (AEs) between vaccine and placebo recipients. Viremia was transient and the mean viremia levels were low. The vaccine elicited strong and durable neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses. WN epidemiology impedes a classical licensure pathway; therefore, innovative licensure strategies should be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
Open AccessReview Gene Therapy Strategies for HIV/AIDS: Preclinical Modeling in Humanized Mice
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3119-3141; doi:10.3390/v5123119
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the absence of an effective vaccine and lack of a complete cure, gene therapy approaches to control HIV infection offer feasible alternatives. Due to the chronic nature of infection, a wide window of opportunity exists to gene modify the HIV susceptible [...] Read more.
In the absence of an effective vaccine and lack of a complete cure, gene therapy approaches to control HIV infection offer feasible alternatives. Due to the chronic nature of infection, a wide window of opportunity exists to gene modify the HIV susceptible cells that continuously arise from the bone marrow source. To evaluate promising gene therapy approaches that employ various anti-HIV therapeutic molecules, an ideal animal model is necessary to generate important efficacy and preclinical data. In this regard, the humanized mouse models that harbor human hematopoietic cells susceptible to HIV infection provide a suitable in vivo system. This review summarizes the currently used humanized mouse models and different anti-HIV molecules utilized for conferring HIV resistance. Humanized mouse models are compared for their utility in this context and provide perspectives for new directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy for Retroviral Infections)
Open AccessReview The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3142-3170; doi:10.3390/v5123142
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore [...] Read more.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore critical to investigations regarding arbovirus evolution, virus-vector ecology, and mosquito vector competence. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding regarding mosquito innate immunity to West Nile virus. We draw from the literature with respect to other virus-vector pairings to attempt to draw inferences to gaps in our knowledge about West Nile virus and relevant vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
Open AccessReview Make Yourself at Home: Viral Hijacking of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3192-3212; doi:10.3390/v5123192
Received: 29 October 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As viruses do not possess genes encoding for proteins required for translation, energy metabolism or membrane biosynthesis, they are classified as obligatory intracellular parasites that depend on a host cell to replicate. This genome limitation forces them to gain control over cellular [...] Read more.
As viruses do not possess genes encoding for proteins required for translation, energy metabolism or membrane biosynthesis, they are classified as obligatory intracellular parasites that depend on a host cell to replicate. This genome limitation forces them to gain control over cellular processes to ensure their successful propagation. A diverse spectrum of virally encoded proteins tackling a broad spectrum of cellular pathways during most steps of the viral life cycle ranging from the host cell entry to viral protein translation has evolved. Since the host cell PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays a critical regulatory role in many cellular processes including RNA processing, translation, autophagy and apoptosis, many viruses, in widely varying ways, target it. This review focuses on a number of remarkable examples of viral strategies, which exploit the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for effective viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)

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