Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2010), Pages 1872-2436

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-37
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2131-2135; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052131
Received: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in
[...] Read more.
This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1889-1900; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051889
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 23 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-toxic equivalent factor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations can provide a more accurate risk assessment from environmental exposure to PAH. We hypothesized that BaP-equivalent toxicity determined following residential air monitoring among young urban children may vary by season.
[...] Read more.
The application of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-toxic equivalent factor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations can provide a more accurate risk assessment from environmental exposure to PAH. We hypothesized that BaP-equivalent toxicity determined following residential air monitoring among young urban children may vary by season. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of PAH measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n = 260) in New York City were normalized to the cancer and mutagen potency equivalent factor of BaP (BaP = 1). Data are presented as carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ) and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) for the sum of 8 PAH (∑8PAH; MW ³ 228) and individual PAH and compared across heating versus nonheating seasons. Results show that heating compared to nonheating season was associated significantly with higher (BaP-TEQ)∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ)∑8PAH both indoors and outdoors (p < 0.001). Outdoor (BaP-TEQ)∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ)∑8PAH were significantly higher than the corresponding indoor measures during the heating season (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that at levels encountered in New York City air, especially during the heating season, residential exposure to PAH may pose an increased risk of cancer and mutation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1901-1912; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051901
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 21 April 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002), data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state-
[...] Read more.
This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002), data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01) increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1937-1952; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051937
Received: 7 January 2010 / Revised: 13 March 2010 / Accepted: 2 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made
[...] Read more.
Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF) simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (Wmax) using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE) obtained at the equilibrium level (EL), from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21–30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2–3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS) for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1953-1962; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051953
Received: 7 January 2009 / Revised: 17 February 2010 / Accepted: 2 March 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases
[...] Read more.
Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Autism from a Biometric Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1984-1995; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051984
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose:The aim of this pilot study was to test autistic children, siblings and their parents using a biometric device based on the gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique in order to assess their psycho-emotional and physiological functional state based on the activity of
[...] Read more.
Purpose:The aim of this pilot study was to test autistic children, siblings and their parents using a biometric device based on the gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique in order to assess their psycho-emotional and physiological functional state based on the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the biometric assessment based on GDV will enable us: (1) to evaluate some specific features associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as to compare autistic children to their siblings and to controls; (2) to analyze the differences in individual values of parents of autistic children versus parents of normal children. Results: Out of total of 48 acupuncture points present on ten fingertips of both hands and associated to organs/organ systems, autistic children differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05) in 36 (images without filter) and 12 (images with filter), siblings differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05) in 12 (images without filter) and seven (images with filter), autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05) from siblings in eight (images without filter) and one (images with filter), fathers of autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05) from controls in 14 (images without filter) and three (images with filter) and mothers of autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05) from controls in five (images without filter) and nine (images with filter) acupuncture points. Conclusions: All compared groups have shown significant difference on both psycho-emotional (images without filter) and physiological (images with filter) levels. However, the differences between autistic children and controls expressed on psycho-emotional level were the most significant as compared to the other groups. Therefore, the activity of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system is significantly altered in children with autism. The biometric method based on GDV is a promising step in autism research that may lead towards creating a disease profile and identify unique signature/biomarker for autism. Further work should involve more participants in order to augment our findings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1996-2007; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051996
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL). Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and not
[...] Read more.
Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL). Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and not entirely delineated. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and to determine whether arsenic-induced apoptosis is mediated via caspase activation, p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell cycle arrest. To achieve this goal, lung cancer cells (A549) were exposed to various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µg/mL) of arsenic trioxide for 48 h. The effect of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was determined by the caspase-3 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) assay, p38 MAP kinase activity was determined by an immunoblot assay, and cell-cycle analysis was evaluated by the propidium iodide assay. The [3H]thymidine-incorporation assay revealed a dose-related cytotoxic response at high levels of exposure. Furthermore, arsenic trioxide modulated caspase 3 activity and induced p38 MAP kinase activation in A549 cells. However, cell-cycle studies showed no statistically significant differences in DNA content at subG1 check point between control and arsenic trioxide treated cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Basic Apoptotic Mechanisms of Lead Toxicity in Human Leukemia (Hl-60) Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2008-2017; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052008
Received: 13 January 2010 / Revised: 26 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lead exposure represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. It may also cause hematological effects to people of all ages. Recent studies in our laboratory have indicated that apoptosis may be associated with
[...] Read more.
Lead exposure represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. It may also cause hematological effects to people of all ages. Recent studies in our laboratory have indicated that apoptosis may be associated with the lead-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the mechanisms underlying its effect on lymphocytes are still largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptotic mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] using HL-60 cells as a test model. HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h prior to cell viability assay and flow cytometry assessment. The results obtained from the trypan blue exclusion test indicated that at very low concentration, Pb(NO3)2 has no effect on the viability of HL-60 cells. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell viability was observed when exposed to high level of Pb(NO3)2. Data generated from the flow cytometric assessment indicated that Pb(NO3)2 exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of annexin V positive cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. Pb(NO3)2 induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells was associated with the activation of caspase-3. In summary, these studies demonstrated that Pb(NO3)2 represents an apoptosis-inducing agent in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and its apoptotic mechanism functions, at least in part via, induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activation. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on DNA Synthesis and Genotoxicity in Human Colon Cancer Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2018-2032; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052018
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 26 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide is cytotoxic in human colon cancer (HT-29), lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cells. The purpose of the present study is to
[...] Read more.
Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide is cytotoxic in human colon cancer (HT-29), lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and the possible genotoxic effects on human colon cancer cells. HT-29 cells were cultured according to standard protocol, followed by exposure to various doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 μg/mL) of arsenic trioxide for 24 h. The proliferative response (DNA synthesis) to arsenic trioxide was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The genotoxic effects of arsenic-induced DNA damage in a human colon cancer cell line was evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that arsenic trioxide affected DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells in a biphasic manner; showing a slight but not significant increase in cell proliferation at lower levels of exposure (2, 4 and 6 µg/mL) followed by a significant inhibition of cell proliferation at higher doses (i.e., 8 and 10 µg/mL). The study also confirmed that arsenic trioxide exposure caused genotoxicity as revealed by the significant increase in DNA damage, comet tail-lengths, and tail moment when compared to non-exposed cells. Results of the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and comet assay revealed that exposure to arsenic trioxide affected DNA synthesis and exhibited genotoxic effects in human colon cancer cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Perturbation of the Developmental Potential of Preimplantation Mouse Embryos by Hydroxyurea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2033-2044; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052033
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Women are advised not to attempt pregnancy while on hydroxyurea (HU) due to the teratogenic effects of this agent, based on results obtained from animal studies. Several case reports suggest that HU may have minimal or no teratogenic effects on the developing human
[...] Read more.
Women are advised not to attempt pregnancy while on hydroxyurea (HU) due to the teratogenic effects of this agent, based on results obtained from animal studies. Several case reports suggest that HU may have minimal or no teratogenic effects on the developing human fetus. Fourteen cases of HU therapy in pregnant patients diagnosed with acute or chronic myelogenous leukemia, primary thrombocythemia, or sickle cell disease (SCD) have been reported. Three pregnancies were terminated by elective abortion; 1 woman developed eclampsia and delivered a phenotypically normal stillborn infant. All other patients delivered live, healthy infants without congenital anomalies. We contend that case studies such as these have too few patients and cannot effectively address the adverse effect of HU on preimplantation embryo or fetuses. The objective of this study was to assess the risks associated with a clinically relevant dose of HU used for the treatment of SCD, on ovulation rate and embryo development, using adult C57BL/6J female mice as a model. In Experiment 1, adult female mice were randomly assigned to a treatment or a control group (N = 20/group). Treatment consisted of oral HU (30 mg/kg) for 28 days; while control mice received saline (HU vehicle). Five days to the cessation of HU dosing, all mice were subjected to folliculogenesis induction with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Five mice/group were anesthetized at 48 hours post PMSG to facilitate blood collection via cardiac puncture for estradiol-17β (E2) measurement by RIA. Ovulation was induced in the remaining mice at 48 hours post PMSG with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and immediately caged with adult males for mating. Five plugged female mice/group were sacrificed for the determination of ovulation rate. The remaining mated mice were sacrificed about 26 hours post hCG, ovaries excised and weighed and embryos harvested and cultured in Whitten’s medium (WM) supplemented with CZBt. In Experiments 2 and 3, (N = 10/Experiment) folliculogenesis and ovulation were induced in untreated mice followed by mating. Recovered embryos were either exposed continuously (Experiment 2) or intermittently (Experiment 3) to bioavailable HU (18 μg HU/mL of WM + CZBt) or WM + CZBt only (control). Treated mice sustained decreased ovarian wt, ovulation rate and circulating E2 compared with controls (P < 0.05). Fewer embryos retrieved from HU-treated mice developed to blastocyst stage (32%) compared with those from controls (60%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, continuous or intermittent in vitro exposures of embryos to HU also resulted in reduced development to blastocyst stage (continuous HU, 9 vs. control, 63%; P < 0.05; intermittent HU, 20 vs. control, 62%; P < 0.05) with embryos exposed continuously to HU in vitro fairing worse. Even though HU is well tolerated, our data suggest that it compromises folliculogenesis and the ability of generated embryos to develop. Therefore, designed studies with larger numbers of patients receiving HU during pregnancy, with longer follow-up of exposed children and more careful assessment of embryo/fetotoxic effects, are required before this agent can be promoted as safe in pregnancy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2045-2056; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052045
Received: 20 January 2010 / Revised: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects
[...] Read more.
Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD)-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide) on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-β-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Anthracene-Based Tripodal Chemosensor for Anion Sensing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2057-2070; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052057
Received: 7 January 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for its
[...] Read more.
An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for its anion binding ability toward fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate and nitrate by the fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The addition of an anion to the ligand resulted in an enhancement in fluorescence intensity at the excitation of 310 nm. Analysis of the spectral changes suggested that the ligand formed a 1:1 complex with each of the anions, showing strong affinity for fluoride and sulfate in DMSO. The unsubstituted tren was reacted with sulfuric acid to form a sulfate complex and the structure was determined by the X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the complex revealed that three sulfates are held between two ligands by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions with protonated amines. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Contamination of the Conchos River in Mexico: Does It Pose a Health Risk to Local Residents?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2071-2084; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052071
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 14 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Presently, water contamination issues are of great concern worldwide. Mexico has not escaped this environmental problem, which negatively affects aquifers, water bodies and biodiversity; but most of all, public health. The objective was to determine the level of water contamination in six tributaries
[...] Read more.
Presently, water contamination issues are of great concern worldwide. Mexico has not escaped this environmental problem, which negatively affects aquifers, water bodies and biodiversity; but most of all, public health. The objective was to determine the level of water contamination in six tributaries of the Conchos River and to relate their levels to human health risks. Bimonthly samples were obtained from each location during 2005 and 2006. Physical-chemical variables (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Total solids and total nitrogen) as well as heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Li) were determined. The statistical analysis considered yearly, monthly, and location effects, and their interactions. Temperatures differed only as a function of the sampling month (P < 0.001) and the pH was different for years (P = 0.006), months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P = 0.018). The EC was different for each location (P < 0.001), total solids did not change and total nitrogen was different for years (P < 0.001), months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001). The As concentration was different for months (P = 0.008) and the highest concentration was detected in February samples with 0.11 mg L-1. The Cr was different for months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001), noting the highest value of 0.25 mg L-1. The Cu, Fe, Mn, Va and Zn were different for years, months, and their interaction. The highest value of Cu was 2.50 mg L-1; forFe, it was 16.36 mg L-1; forMn it was 1.66 mg L-1; V was 0.55 mg L-1; and Zn was 0.53 mg L-1. For Ni, there were differences for years (P = 0.030), months (P < 0.001), and locations (P = 0.050), with the highest Ni value being 0.47 mg L-1. The Li level was the same for sampling month (P < 0.001). This information can help prevent potential health risks in the communities established along the river watershed who use this natural resource for swimming and fishing. Some of the contaminant concentrations found varied from year to year, from month to month and from location to location which necessitated a continued monitoring process to determine under which conditions the concentrations of toxic elements surpass existing norms for natural waters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Risk Factors for Transmission of HIV in a Hospital Environment of Yaoundé, Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2085-2100; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052085
Received: 21 January 2010 / Revised: 10 March 2010 / Accepted: 4 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (84 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Risk factors for HIV transmission within a hospital setting were assessed using pre-structured questionnaires and observations. Of 409 respondents, 66.3% corresponded to the nursing staff, 14.4% doctors and 8.3% laboratory staff. The irregular use of gloves and other protective clothing for risky tasks,
[...] Read more.
Risk factors for HIV transmission within a hospital setting were assessed using pre-structured questionnaires and observations. Of 409 respondents, 66.3% corresponded to the nursing staff, 14.4% doctors and 8.3% laboratory staff. The irregular use of gloves and other protective clothing for risky tasks, and recapping of needles after use were some of the risk factors identified, especially amongst nurses. Preventive measures were not always implemented by health personnel. More emphasis should be placed not only on diffusing universal precautions and recommendations for hospital staff safety, but accompanying measures for monitoring and evaluation of implementation of these standards are also indispensable. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using GIS in Ecological Management: Green Assessment of the Impacts of Petroleum Activities in the State of Texas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2101-2130; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052101
Received: 13 January 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also furnishes
[...] Read more.
Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also furnishes information on the pace at which resource extraction affects nature. Notwithstanding the recourse to ecosystem protection, geo-spatial analysis of the impacts remains sketchy. This paper uses GIS and descriptive statistics to assess the ecological impacts of petroleum extraction activities in Texas. While the focus ranges from issues to mitigation strategies, the results point to growth in indicators of ecosystem decline. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2136-2160; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052136
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with
[...] Read more.
This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Research on Alcohol: Public Health Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle Adolescent Propensity to Engage in Health Risky Behaviors: The Role of Individual Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2161-2176; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052161
Received: 31 December 2009 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we create indices of resilience to identify adolescents at risk of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illegal drugs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, three manifestations of resilience were identified: overall-resilience, self/family-resilience, and self-resilience. Our analysis
[...] Read more.
In this paper we create indices of resilience to identify adolescents at risk of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illegal drugs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, three manifestations of resilience were identified: overall-resilience, self/family-resilience, and self-resilience. Our analysis reveals that the overall-resilient were less likely to engage in risky behaviors. The self/family resilient were more likely to engage in risky behaviors, but consumed less. The self-resilient had reduced risk for smoking and drinking alcohol but elevated risk for using illegal drugs and being in an addictive stage of smoking and drinking, if participating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Using a Relational Database to Index Infectious Disease Information
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2177-2190; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052177
Received: 8 March 2010 / Revised: 27 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mapping medical knowledge into a relational database became possible with the availability of personal computers and user-friendly database software in the early 1990s. To create a database of medical knowledge, the domain expert works like a mapmaker to first outline the domain and
[...] Read more.
Mapping medical knowledge into a relational database became possible with the availability of personal computers and user-friendly database software in the early 1990s. To create a database of medical knowledge, the domain expert works like a mapmaker to first outline the domain and then add the details, starting with the most prominent features. The resulting "intelligent database" can support the decisions of healthcare professionals. The intelligent database described in this article contains profiles of 275 infectious diseases. Users can query the database for all diseases matching one or more specific criteria (symptom, endemic region of the world, or epidemiological factor). Epidemiological factors include sources (patients, water, soil, or animals), routes of entry, and insect vectors. Medical and public health professionals could use such a database as a decision-support software tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Informatics)
Open AccessArticle Trends in Body Mass Index among Icelandic Adolescents and Young Adults from 1992 to 2007
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2191-2207; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052191
Received: 23 February 2010 / Revised: 27 April 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trends in body mass index (BMI) among 51,889 14- to 20-year-old Icelandic adolescents and young adults were examined using data from cross-sectional population surveys conducted from 1992 to 2007. Prevalence of overweight increased for both genders in all age groups, except for 14-
[...] Read more.
Trends in body mass index (BMI) among 51,889 14- to 20-year-old Icelandic adolescents and young adults were examined using data from cross-sectional population surveys conducted from 1992 to 2007. Prevalence of overweight increased for both genders in all age groups, except for 14- and 20-year-old girls. Obesity prevalence increased among boys in all age groups, except for 16-year-olds, and among 15- and 20-year-old girls. The largest increase in obesity rates among both genders was found in the oldest age group. Moreover, not only has the prevalence of obesity increased, but also the extent of obesity has grown more severe among 15- and 17-year-olds boys and among girls in the oldest age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Publically Funded Recreation Facilities: Obesogenic Environments for Children and Families?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2208-2221; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052208
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 25 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs,
[...] Read more.
Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of Air Pollution-Induced Premature Mortality to Precursor Emissions under the Influence of Climate Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2222-2237; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052222
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 29 April 2010 / Published: 5 May 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relative contributions of PM2.5 and ozone precursor emissions to air pollution-related premature mortality modulated by climate change are estimated for the U.S. using sensitivities of air pollutants to precursor emissions and health outcomes for 2001 and 2050. Result suggests that states
[...] Read more.
The relative contributions of PM2.5 and ozone precursor emissions to air pollution-related premature mortality modulated by climate change are estimated for the U.S. using sensitivities of air pollutants to precursor emissions and health outcomes for 2001 and 2050. Result suggests that states with high emission rates and significant premature mortality increases induced by PM2.5 will substantially benefit in the future from SO2, anthropogenic NOX and NH3 emissions reductions while states with premature mortality increases induced by O3 will benefit mainly from anthropogenic NOX emissions reduction. Much of the increase in premature mortality expected from climate change-induced pollutant increases can be offset by targeting a specific precursor emission in most states based on the modeling approach followed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessArticle Surveillance of Summer Mortality and Preparedness to Reduce the Health Impact of Heat Waves in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2256-2273; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052256
Received: 6 April 2010 / Revised: 21 April 2010 / Accepted: 29 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The
[...] Read more.
Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The Italian program represents an important example of an integrated approach to prevent the impact of heat on health, comprising Heat Health Watch Warning Systems, a mortality surveillance system and prevention activities targeted to susceptible subgroups. City-specific warning systems are based on the relationship between temperature and mortality and serve as basis for the modulation of prevention measures. Local prevention activities, based on the guidelines defined by the Ministry of Health, are constructed around the infrastructures and services available. A key component of the prevention program is the identification of susceptible individuals and the active surveillance by General Practitioners, medical personnel and social workers. The mortality surveillance system enables the timely estimation of the impact of heat, and heat waves, on mortality during summer as well as to the evaluation of warning systems and prevention programs. Considering future predictions of climate change, the implementation of effective prevention programs, targeted to high risk subjects, become a priority in the public health agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessArticle Built Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling in Dutch Urban Children: Results from the SPACE Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2309-2324; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052309
Received: 26 February 2010 / Revised: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined built environmental correlates of children’s walking and cycling behavior. Four hundred and forty-eight children from 10 Dutch neighborhoods completed a seven-day physical activity diary in which the number of walking and cycling trips for transportation, to school, and for recreation
[...] Read more.
This study examined built environmental correlates of children’s walking and cycling behavior. Four hundred and forty-eight children from 10 Dutch neighborhoods completed a seven-day physical activity diary in which the number of walking and cycling trips for transportation, to school, and for recreation were assessed. The associations between observed built environmental characteristics and children’s walking and cycling behavior were examined with multivariate linear regression analyses. The results showed that built environmental correlates of children’s walking and cycling behavior differ by purpose and by commuting mode implying a behavior-specific approach for interventions and for future, preferably prospective, studies. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Binge Drinking Effects on EEG in Young Adult Humans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2325-2336; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052325
Received: 2 February 2010 / Revised: 1 April 2010 / Accepted: 7 May 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Young adult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces
[...] Read more.
Young adult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours), and high-binge drinkers (≥ 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours), who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz) and fast-beta (20–35 Hz) bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2376-2394; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052376
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 12 May 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua)
[...] Read more.
We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2395-2406; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052395
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 14 May 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of
[...] Read more.
This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2407-2422; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052407
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 14 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 19 May 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic
[...] Read more.
Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Assessing Dental Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2423-2436; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052423
Received: 29 March 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 12 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the distribution profile of dental caries and its association with areas of social deprivation at the individual and contextual level. The cluster sample consisted of 1,002 12-year-old schoolchildren from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The DMFT Index was used for dental
[...] Read more.
The present study investigated the distribution profile of dental caries and its association with areas of social deprivation at the individual and contextual level. The cluster sample consisted of 1,002 12-year-old schoolchildren from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The DMFT Index was used for dental caries and the Care Index was used to determine access to dental services. On the individual level, variables were associated with a better oral status. On the contextual level, areas were not associated with oral status. However, maps enabled determining that the central districts have better social and oral conditions than the deprived outlying districts. Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Molecular Basis and Current Treatment for Alcoholic Liver Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1872-1888; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051872
Received: 18 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 27 April 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alcohol use disorders and alcohol dependency affect millions of individuals worldwide. The impact of these facts lies in the elevated social and economic costs. Alcoholic liver disease is caused by acute and chronic exposure to ethanol which promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory response.
[...] Read more.
Alcohol use disorders and alcohol dependency affect millions of individuals worldwide. The impact of these facts lies in the elevated social and economic costs. Alcoholic liver disease is caused by acute and chronic exposure to ethanol which promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Chronic consumption of ethanol implies liver steatosis, which is the first morphological change in the liver, followed by liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. This review comprises a broad approach of alcohol use disorders, and a more specific assessment of the pathophysiologic molecular basis, and genetics, as well as clinical presentation and current modalities of treatment for alcoholic liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1913-1936; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051913
Received: 6 January 2010 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 11 February 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this
[...] Read more.
Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive. Full article
Open AccessReview Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1963-1969; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051963
Received: 7 January 2009 / Revised: 11 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 February 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research
[...] Read more.
Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. Full article
Open AccessReview The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1970-1983; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051970
Received: 7 January 2010 / Revised: 27 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body.
[...] Read more.
Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2238-2255; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052238
Received: 28 December 2009 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year
[...] Read more.
To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Outcome Measurement in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions: a Role for the Capability Approach?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2274-2289; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052274
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 30 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for
[...] Read more.
Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for medical interventions. Focusing on health as an outcome measure is likely to underestimate the impact of many public health interventions. This paper provides a review of outcome measures in public health; and describes the benefits of using the capability approach as a means to developing an all encompassing outcome measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)
Open AccessReview The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2290-2308; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052290
Received: 25 January 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 30 April 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (75 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty
[...] Read more.
The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2337-2361; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052337
Received: 28 January 2010 / Revised: 24 March 2010 / Accepted: 31 March 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 87 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone
[...] Read more.
Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Health)
Open AccessReview The Relationship between Workplace, Job Stress and Nurses’ Tobacco Use: A Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2362-2375; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052362
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 6 April 2010 / Accepted: 16 April 2010 / Published: 11 May 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the possible relationship between the workplace as a stressor factor and nurses’ tobacco use. A systematic review of the literature from 1995 to 2009, using the MEDLINE
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the possible relationship between the workplace as a stressor factor and nurses’ tobacco use. A systematic review of the literature from 1995 to 2009, using the MEDLINE database took place. Studies, that referred to nurses’ smoking habit exclusively or as a part of the study, were included in the review. 491 studies were retrieved and their titles/abstracts were examined systematically. Twenty one studies were retrieved for further consideration by a comprehensive literature review. Ten studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and they were examined further. There is a conflict on the possible relationship between workplace as a stressor factor and nurses’ smoking habits, because there is no evidence on if the nurses’ work environment causes smoking initiation. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top