Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2045-2056; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052045
Article

Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

1,email, 1,email and 2,* email
Received: 20 January 2010; in revised form: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD)-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide) on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-β-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer.
Keywords: xenoestrogens; Coumestrol; DDT; TCDD; Cell Cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndebele, K.; Graham, B.; Tchounwou, P.B. Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 2045-2056.

AMA Style

Ndebele K, Graham B, Tchounwou PB. Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(5):2045-2056.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ndebele, Kenneth; Graham, Barbara; Tchounwou, Paul B. 2010. "Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 5: 2045-2056.

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