Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1996-2007; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051996
Article

Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells

1,2email, 2email, 3email and 1,* email
Received: 8 January 2010; in revised form: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL). Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and not entirely delineated. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and to determine whether arsenic-induced apoptosis is mediated via caspase activation, p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell cycle arrest. To achieve this goal, lung cancer cells (A549) were exposed to various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µg/mL) of arsenic trioxide for 48 h. The effect of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was determined by the caspase-3 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) assay, p38 MAP kinase activity was determined by an immunoblot assay, and cell-cycle analysis was evaluated by the propidium iodide assay. The [3H]thymidine-incorporation assay revealed a dose-related cytotoxic response at high levels of exposure. Furthermore, arsenic trioxide modulated caspase 3 activity and induced p38 MAP kinase activation in A549 cells. However, cell-cycle studies showed no statistically significant differences in DNA content at subG1 check point between control and arsenic trioxide treated cells.
Keywords: arsenic trioxide (As2O3); [3H]thymidine incorporation; apoptosis; cell cycle regulation; p38 MAP kinase; caspase-3 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walker, A.M.; Stevens, J.J.; Ndebele, K.; Tchounwou, P.B. Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1996-2007.

AMA Style

Walker AM, Stevens JJ, Ndebele K, Tchounwou PB. Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(5):1996-2007.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walker, Alice M.; Stevens, Jacqueline J.; Ndebele, Kenneth; Tchounwou, Paul B. 2010. "Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 5: 1996-2007.

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