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Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis
Alcohol Research Group, 6475 Christie Avenue, Suite 400, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
NIAAA Training Program, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94709, USA
Clinical Services Research Training Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2010; in revised form: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Abstract: This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health.
Keywords: context of drinking; on- and off-premises alcohol use; gender equity; economic development; culture; hierarchical linear models (HLM); cross-national study; GENACIS
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Bond, J.C.; Roberts, S.C.; Greenfield, T.K.; Korcha, R.; Ye, Y.; Nayak, M.B. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 2136-2160.
Bond JC, Roberts SC, Greenfield TK, Korcha R, Ye Y, Nayak MB. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(5):2136-2160.
Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B. 2010. "Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 5: 2136-2160.