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Special Issue "Proceedings from the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2010)

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2131-2135; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052131
Received: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel [...] Read more.
This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU) from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Risk Factors for Transmission of HIV in a Hospital Environment of Yaoundé, Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2085-2100; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052085
Received: 21 January 2010 / Revised: 10 March 2010 / Accepted: 4 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (84 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Risk factors for HIV transmission within a hospital setting were assessed using pre-structured questionnaires and observations. Of 409 respondents, 66.3% corresponded to the nursing staff, 14.4% doctors and 8.3% laboratory staff. The irregular use of gloves and other protective clothing for risky [...] Read more.
Risk factors for HIV transmission within a hospital setting were assessed using pre-structured questionnaires and observations. Of 409 respondents, 66.3% corresponded to the nursing staff, 14.4% doctors and 8.3% laboratory staff. The irregular use of gloves and other protective clothing for risky tasks, and recapping of needles after use were some of the risk factors identified, especially amongst nurses. Preventive measures were not always implemented by health personnel. More emphasis should be placed not only on diffusing universal precautions and recommendations for hospital staff safety, but accompanying measures for monitoring and evaluation of implementation of these standards are also indispensable. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using GIS in Ecological Management: Green Assessment of the Impacts of Petroleum Activities in the State of Texas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2101-2130; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052101
Received: 13 January 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also [...] Read more.
Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also furnishes information on the pace at which resource extraction affects nature. Notwithstanding the recourse to ecosystem protection, geo-spatial analysis of the impacts remains sketchy. This paper uses GIS and descriptive statistics to assess the ecological impacts of petroleum extraction activities in Texas. While the focus ranges from issues to mitigation strategies, the results point to growth in indicators of ecosystem decline. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2045-2056; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052045
Received: 20 January 2010 / Revised: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate [...] Read more.
Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD)-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide) on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-β-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Anthracene-Based Tripodal Chemosensor for Anion Sensing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2057-2070; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052057
Received: 7 January 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for [...] Read more.
An anthracene-based tripodal ligand was synthesized from the condensation of tren with 9-anthraldehyde, and the subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. The neutral ligand was protonated from the reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid to give a triply charged chemosensor that was examined for its anion binding ability toward fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfate and nitrate by the fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The addition of an anion to the ligand resulted in an enhancement in fluorescence intensity at the excitation of 310 nm. Analysis of the spectral changes suggested that the ligand formed a 1:1 complex with each of the anions, showing strong affinity for fluoride and sulfate in DMSO. The unsubstituted tren was reacted with sulfuric acid to form a sulfate complex and the structure was determined by the X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the complex revealed that three sulfates are held between two ligands by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions with protonated amines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contamination of the Conchos River in Mexico: Does It Pose a Health Risk to Local Residents?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2071-2084; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052071
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 14 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Presently, water contamination issues are of great concern worldwide. Mexico has not escaped this environmental problem, which negatively affects aquifers, water bodies and biodiversity; but most of all, public health. The objective was to determine the level of water contamination in six tributaries of the Conchos River and to relate their levels to human health risks. Bimonthly samples were obtained from each location during 2005 and 2006. Physical-chemical variables (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Total solids and total nitrogen) as well as heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Li) were determined. The statistical analysis considered yearly, monthly, and location effects, and their interactions. Temperatures differed only as a function of the sampling month (P < 0.001) and the pH was different for years (P = 0.006), months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P = 0.018). The EC was different for each location (P < 0.001), total solids did not change and total nitrogen was different for years (P < 0.001), months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001). The As concentration was different for months (P = 0.008) and the highest concentration was detected in February samples with 0.11 mg L-1. The Cr was different for months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001), noting the highest value of 0.25 mg L-1. The Cu, Fe, Mn, Va and Zn were different for years, months, and their interaction. The highest value of Cu was 2.50 mg L-1; forFe, it was 16.36 mg L-1; forMn it was 1.66 mg L-1; V was 0.55 mg L-1; and Zn was 0.53 mg L-1. For Ni, there were differences for years (P = 0.030), months (P < 0.001), and locations (P = 0.050), with the highest Ni value being 0.47 mg L-1. The Li level was the same for sampling month (P < 0.001). This information can help prevent potential health risks in the communities established along the river watershed who use this natural resource for swimming and fishing. Some of the contaminant concentrations found varied from year to year, from month to month and from location to location which necessitated a continued monitoring process to determine under which conditions the concentrations of toxic elements surpass existing norms for natural waters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1937-1952; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051937
Received: 7 January 2010 / Revised: 13 March 2010 / Accepted: 2 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
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Abstract
Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and [...] Read more.
Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane) began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF) simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (Wmax) using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE) obtained at the equilibrium level (EL), from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21–30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2–3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS) for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1953-1962; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051953
Received: 7 January 2009 / Revised: 17 February 2010 / Accepted: 2 March 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two [...] Read more.
Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness. The effects of native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetics were compared using a blind within-subject crossover design. Subjects undertook two phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS or soy milk. Patients on NBS lost more body weight than when they were on control treatment. Plasma insulin and HOMA-I were reduced after NBS consumption, compared with baseline levels, but not significantly when compared to the control treatment. Results support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber supplementation. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Autism from a Biometric Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1984-1995; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051984
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose:The aim of this pilot study was to test autistic children, siblings and their parents using a biometric device based on the gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique in order to assess their psycho-emotional and physiological functional state based on the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the biometric assessment based on GDV will enable us: (1) to evaluate some specific features associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as to compare autistic children to their siblings and to controls; (2) to analyze the differences in individual values of parents of autistic children versus parents of normal children. Results: Out of total of 48 acupuncture points present on ten fingertips of both hands and associated to organs/organ systems, autistic children differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05) in 36 (images without filter) and 12 (images with filter), siblings differed significantly from controls (p < 0.05) in 12 (images without filter) and seven (images with filter), autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05) from siblings in eight (images without filter) and one (images with filter), fathers of autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05) from controls in 14 (images without filter) and three (images with filter) and mothers of autistic children differed significantly (p < 0.05) from controls in five (images without filter) and nine (images with filter) acupuncture points. Conclusions: All compared groups have shown significant difference on both psycho-emotional (images without filter) and physiological (images with filter) levels. However, the differences between autistic children and controls expressed on psycho-emotional level were the most significant as compared to the other groups. Therefore, the activity of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system is significantly altered in children with autism. The biometric method based on GDV is a promising step in autism research that may lead towards creating a disease profile and identify unique signature/biomarker for autism. Further work should involve more participants in order to augment our findings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Arsenic Trioxide Modulates DNA Synthesis and Apoptosis in Lung Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1996-2007; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051996
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 30 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL). Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and [...] Read more.
Arsenic trioxide, the trade name Trisenox, is a drug used to treat acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL). Studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide slows cancer cells growth. Although arsenic influences numerous signal-transduction pathways, cell-cycle progression, and/or apoptosis, its apoptotic mechanisms are complex and not entirely delineated. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and to determine whether arsenic-induced apoptosis is mediated via caspase activation, p38 mitogen–activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell cycle arrest. To achieve this goal, lung cancer cells (A549) were exposed to various concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µg/mL) of arsenic trioxide for 48 h. The effect of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was determined by the caspase-3 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) assay, p38 MAP kinase activity was determined by an immunoblot assay, and cell-cycle analysis was evaluated by the propidium iodide assay. The [3H]thymidine-incorporation assay revealed a dose-related cytotoxic response at high levels of exposure. Furthermore, arsenic trioxide modulated caspase 3 activity and induced p38 MAP kinase activation in A549 cells. However, cell-cycle studies showed no statistically significant differences in DNA content at subG1 check point between control and arsenic trioxide treated cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Basic Apoptotic Mechanisms of Lead Toxicity in Human Leukemia (Hl-60) Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2008-2017; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052008
Received: 13 January 2010 / Revised: 26 March 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lead exposure represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. It may also cause hematological effects to people of all ages. Recent studies in our laboratory have indicated that apoptosis may be associated with the lead-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the mechanisms underlying its effect on lymphocytes are still largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptotic mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] using HL-60 cells as a test model. HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h prior to cell viability assay and flow cytometry assessment. The results obtained from the trypan blue exclusion test indicated that at very low concentration, Pb(NO3)2 has no effect on the viability of HL-60 cells. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cell viability was observed when exposed to high level of Pb(NO3)2. Data generated from the flow cytometric assessment indicated that Pb(NO3)2 exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of annexin V positive cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. Pb(NO3)2 induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells was associated with the activation of caspase-3. In summary, these studies demonstrated that Pb(NO3)2 represents an apoptosis-inducing agent in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and its apoptotic mechanism functions, at least in part via, induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activation. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on DNA Synthesis and Genotoxicity in Human Colon Cancer Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2018-2032; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052018
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 26 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide is cytotoxic in human colon cancer (HT-29), lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cells. The purpose of the present study is [...] Read more.
Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide is cytotoxic in human colon cancer (HT-29), lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and the possible genotoxic effects on human colon cancer cells. HT-29 cells were cultured according to standard protocol, followed by exposure to various doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 μg/mL) of arsenic trioxide for 24 h. The proliferative response (DNA synthesis) to arsenic trioxide was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The genotoxic effects of arsenic-induced DNA damage in a human colon cancer cell line was evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that arsenic trioxide affected DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells in a biphasic manner; showing a slight but not significant increase in cell proliferation at lower levels of exposure (2, 4 and 6 µg/mL) followed by a significant inhibition of cell proliferation at higher doses (i.e., 8 and 10 µg/mL). The study also confirmed that arsenic trioxide exposure caused genotoxicity as revealed by the significant increase in DNA damage, comet tail-lengths, and tail moment when compared to non-exposed cells. Results of the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and comet assay revealed that exposure to arsenic trioxide affected DNA synthesis and exhibited genotoxic effects in human colon cancer cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Perturbation of the Developmental Potential of Preimplantation Mouse Embryos by Hydroxyurea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 2033-2044; doi:10.3390/ijerph7052033
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 15 January 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Women are advised not to attempt pregnancy while on hydroxyurea (HU) due to the teratogenic effects of this agent, based on results obtained from animal studies. Several case reports suggest that HU may have minimal or no teratogenic effects on the developing human fetus. Fourteen cases of HU therapy in pregnant patients diagnosed with acute or chronic myelogenous leukemia, primary thrombocythemia, or sickle cell disease (SCD) have been reported. Three pregnancies were terminated by elective abortion; 1 woman developed eclampsia and delivered a phenotypically normal stillborn infant. All other patients delivered live, healthy infants without congenital anomalies. We contend that case studies such as these have too few patients and cannot effectively address the adverse effect of HU on preimplantation embryo or fetuses. The objective of this study was to assess the risks associated with a clinically relevant dose of HU used for the treatment of SCD, on ovulation rate and embryo development, using adult C57BL/6J female mice as a model. In Experiment 1, adult female mice were randomly assigned to a treatment or a control group (N = 20/group). Treatment consisted of oral HU (30 mg/kg) for 28 days; while control mice received saline (HU vehicle). Five days to the cessation of HU dosing, all mice were subjected to folliculogenesis induction with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Five mice/group were anesthetized at 48 hours post PMSG to facilitate blood collection via cardiac puncture for estradiol-17β (E2) measurement by RIA. Ovulation was induced in the remaining mice at 48 hours post PMSG with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and immediately caged with adult males for mating. Five plugged female mice/group were sacrificed for the determination of ovulation rate. The remaining mated mice were sacrificed about 26 hours post hCG, ovaries excised and weighed and embryos harvested and cultured in Whitten’s medium (WM) supplemented with CZBt. In Experiments 2 and 3, (N = 10/Experiment) folliculogenesis and ovulation were induced in untreated mice followed by mating. Recovered embryos were either exposed continuously (Experiment 2) or intermittently (Experiment 3) to bioavailable HU (18 μg HU/mL of WM + CZBt) or WM + CZBt only (control). Treated mice sustained decreased ovarian wt, ovulation rate and circulating E2 compared with controls (P < 0.05). Fewer embryos retrieved from HU-treated mice developed to blastocyst stage (32%) compared with those from controls (60%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, continuous or intermittent in vitro exposures of embryos to HU also resulted in reduced development to blastocyst stage (continuous HU, 9 vs. control, 63%; P < 0.05; intermittent HU, 20 vs. control, 62%; P < 0.05) with embryos exposed continuously to HU in vitro fairing worse. Even though HU is well tolerated, our data suggest that it compromises folliculogenesis and the ability of generated embryos to develop. Therefore, designed studies with larger numbers of patients receiving HU during pregnancy, with longer follow-up of exposed children and more careful assessment of embryo/fetotoxic effects, are required before this agent can be promoted as safe in pregnancy. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1913-1936; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051913
Received: 6 January 2010 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 11 February 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and [...] Read more.
Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive. Full article
Open AccessReview Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1963-1969; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051963
Received: 7 January 2009 / Revised: 11 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 February 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
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Abstract
Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims [...] Read more.
Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. Full article
Open AccessReview The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(5), 1970-1983; doi:10.3390/ijerph7051970
Received: 7 January 2010 / Revised: 27 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the [...] Read more.
Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. Full article
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