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Mar. Drugs, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2011), Pages 1166-1306

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Thermal Transition Properties of Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and Ling (Genypterus blacodes) Skin Collagens: Implications for Processing
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1176-1186; doi:10.3390/md9071176
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 28 June 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and ling (Genypterus blacodes) are cold-water fish caught in New Zealand waters. Their skins are a major component of the post-processing waste stream. Valuable products could be developed from the skins, as they are primarily composed
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Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and ling (Genypterus blacodes) are cold-water fish caught in New Zealand waters. Their skins are a major component of the post-processing waste stream. Valuable products could be developed from the skins, as they are primarily composed of collagen, which has many commercial applications. We prepared acid soluble collagens (ASC) from hoki and ling skins, and analyzed their thermal denaturation properties using a Rapid Visco™ Analyzer. At slower heating rates the denaturation temperature (TD) of hoki and ling collagens decreased. This result is consistent with the model of irreversible rate kinetics for the denaturation of collagen. We determined the effects of solvents that disrupt hydrogen bonding on ASC stability. Increasing concentrations of urea from 0.1 M to 1.0 M and acetic acid from 0.1 M to 0.5 M decreased TD. This resulted from the effects of these reagents on the hydrogen bonds that stabilize the collagen triple helix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1187-1209; doi:10.3390/md9071187
Received: 9 March 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 June 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable
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Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 µg/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Hydroxylated Nonaprenylhydroquinone from the Mediterranean Marine Sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1210-1219; doi:10.3390/md9071210
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 16 June 2011 / Accepted: 23 June 2011 / Published: 7 July 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the Mediterranean sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus led to the isolation of a new hydroxylated nonaprenylhydroquinone, along with two known metabolites, hepta- and octaprenylhydroquinones. The structure of the new metabolite was assigned by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses and MS studies.
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Chemical investigation of the Mediterranean sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus led to the isolation of a new hydroxylated nonaprenylhydroquinone, along with two known metabolites, hepta- and octaprenylhydroquinones. The structure of the new metabolite was assigned by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses and MS studies. The antileukemic effect of the three compounds towards the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells line K562 was also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1232-1242; doi:10.3390/md9071232
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 11 July 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as
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The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cembranoids with 3,14-Ether Linkage and a Secocembrane with Bistetrahydrofuran from the Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Lobophytum sp.
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1243-1253; doi:10.3390/md9071243
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 12 July 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four new cembranoids, lobophylins A–D (14), and one novel secocembrane, lobophylin E (5) were isolated from a soft coral Lobophytum sp. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Among these
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Four new cembranoids, lobophylins A–D (14), and one novel secocembrane, lobophylin E (5) were isolated from a soft coral Lobophytum sp. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Among these metabolites, 14 are rarely found cembranoids possessing a tetrahydrofuran moiety with a 3,14-ether linkage. In addition, 5 is the first secocembrane possessing two tetrahydrofuran moieties with 3,14- and 4,7-ether linkages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Proteomic Analysis of Anti-Tumor Effects of 11-Dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1254-1272; doi:10.3390/md9071254
Received: 27 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 July 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide, an active ingredient isolated from soft coral Sinularia leptoclados, on CAL-27 cells were investigated in this study. In the MTT assay for cell proliferation, increasing concentrations of 11-dehydrosinulariolide decreased CAL-27 cell viability. When a concentration of 1.5 µg/mL
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The anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide, an active ingredient isolated from soft coral Sinularia leptoclados, on CAL-27 cells were investigated in this study. In the MTT assay for cell proliferation, increasing concentrations of 11-dehydrosinulariolide decreased CAL-27 cell viability. When a concentration of 1.5 µg/mL of 11-dehydrosinulariolide was applied, the CAL-27 cells viability was reduced to a level of 70% of the control sample. The wound healing function decreased as the concentration of 11-dehydrosinulariolide increased. The results in this study indicated that treatment with 11-dehydrosinulariolide for 6 h significantly induced both early and late apoptosis of CAL-27 cells, observed by flow cytometric measurement and microscopic fluorescent observation. A comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells at the molecular level by comparison between the protein profiling (revealed on a 2-DE map) of CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide and that of CAL-27 cells without the treatment. A total of 28 differential proteins (12 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated) in CAL-27 cells treated with 11-dehydrosinulariolide have been identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Some of the differential proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, protein folding, and energy metabolism. The results of this study provided clues for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of 11-dehydrosinulariolide on CAL-27 cells and could be valuable information for drug development and progression monitoring of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Neorogioltriol, a New Diterpene Extracted from the Red Algae Laurencia glandulifera
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1293-1306; doi:10.3390/md9071293
Received: 11 May 2011 / Revised: 3 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neorogioltriol is a tricyclic brominated diterpenoid isolated from the organic extract of the red algae Laurencia glandulifera. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of neorogioltriol were evaluated both in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw264.7
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Neorogioltriol is a tricyclic brominated diterpenoid isolated from the organic extract of the red algae Laurencia glandulifera. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of neorogioltriol were evaluated both in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw264.7 macrophages. The in vivo study demonstrated that the administration of 1 mg/kg of neorogioltriol resulted in the significant reduction of carregeenan-induced rat edema. In vitro, our results show that neorogioltriol treatment decreased the luciferase activity in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells, stably transfected with the NF-κB-dependent luciferase reporter. This effect on NF-κB activation is not mediated through MAPK pathways. The inhibition of NF-κB activity correlates with decreased levels of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) present in neorogioltriol treated supernatant cell culture. Further analyses indicated that this product also significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. These latter effects could only be observed for neorogioltriol concentrations below 62.5 µM. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a molecule derived from Laurencia glandulifera with anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. The effect demonstrated in vitro may be explained by the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and TNFα production. NO release and COX-2 expression may reinforce this effect. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1166-1175; doi:10.3390/md9071166
Received: 17 February 2011 / Revised: 26 May 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 27 June 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that
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Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
Open AccessReview Digestive Enzymes of the Crustaceans Munida and Their Application in Cheese Manufacturing: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1220-1231; doi:10.3390/md9071220
Received: 27 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 7 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting
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Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting activities. Analysis by 2D zymography of the digestive enzymes extracted from Munida hepatopancreas, showed the presence of several isotrypsin- and isochymotrypsin-like enzymes in the range of 20–34 kDa and 4.1–5.8 pI. Moreover, specific enzymatic assays showed the presence of aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases A and B. Overall, optimum activity was achieved at pH 7.5 and 40–45 °C. Caseinolytic activity, determined both spectrophotometrically and by SDS gel electrophoresis, indicated higher activity on β-casein than on α-casein. Miniature cheddar-type cheeses and Pecorino-type cheeses were manufactured by adding starter, rennet and Munida extracts to milk. Reverse-phase HPLC and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry showed a more complex pattern of proteolytic products in cheeses made using Munida instead of chymosin. Munida extracts were found to degrade the chymosin-derived β-casein fragment f193–209, one of the peptides associated with bitterness in cheese. In conclusion, Munida digestive enzymes represent a promising tool for development of new cheese products and shorten cheese ripening when used either alone or in addition to calf rennet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1273-1292; doi:10.3390/md9071273
Received: 30 May 2011 / Revised: 23 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their
[...] Read more.
Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals. Full article

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