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Mar. Drugs, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2011), Pages 922-1165

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Antiprotozoal Activities of Organic Extracts from French Marine Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 922-933; doi:10.3390/md9060922
Received: 6 April 2011 / Revised: 13 May 2011 / Accepted: 23 May 2011 / Published: 25 May 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine macrophytes contain a variety of biologically active compounds, some reported to have antiprotozoal activity in vitro. As a part of a screening program to search for new natural antiprotozoals, we screened hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of 20 species of seaweeds
[...] Read more.
Marine macrophytes contain a variety of biologically active compounds, some reported to have antiprotozoal activity in vitro. As a part of a screening program to search for new natural antiprotozoals, we screened hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of 20 species of seaweeds from three phyla (Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta and Chlorophyta), sampled along the Normandy (France) coast. We tested them in vitro against the protozoa responsible for three major endemic parasitic diseases: Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi. The selectivity of the extracts was also evaluated by testing on a mammalian cell line (L6 cells). Ethyl acetate extracts were more active than hydroalcoholic ones. Activity against T. cruzi and L. donovani was non-existent to average, but almost half the extracts showed good activity against P. falciparum. The ethyl acetate extract of Mastocarpus stellatus showed the best antiplasmodial activity as well as the best selectivity index (IC50 = 2.8 µg/mL; SI > 30). Interestingly, a red algae species, which shares phylogenetic origins with P. falciparum, showed the best antiplasmodial activity. This study is the first to report comparative antiprotozoal activity of French marine algae. Some of the species studied here have not previously been biologically evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Discovery of New Eunicellins from an Indonesian Octocoral Cladiella sp.
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 934-943; doi:10.3390/md9060934
Received: 14 April 2011 / Revised: 18 May 2011 / Accepted: 25 May 2011 / Published: 26 May 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new 11-hydroxyeunicellin diterpenoids, cladieunicellin F (1) and (–)-solenopodin C (2), were isolated from an Indonesian octocoral Cladiella sp. The structures of eunicellins 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods, and eunicellin 2 was found to be an
[...] Read more.
Two new 11-hydroxyeunicellin diterpenoids, cladieunicellin F (1) and (–)-solenopodin C (2), were isolated from an Indonesian octocoral Cladiella sp. The structures of eunicellins 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods, and eunicellin 2 was found to be an enantiomer of the known eunicellin solenopodin C (3). Eunicellin 2 displayed inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils. The previously reported structures of two eunicellin-based compounds, cladielloides A and B, are corrected in this study. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bioactive Cembrane-Based Diterpenoids from the Soft Coral Sinularia triangular
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 944-951; doi:10.3390/md9060944
Received: 25 April 2011 / Revised: 19 May 2011 / Accepted: 26 May 2011 / Published: 27 May 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical examination of the Taiwanese soft coral Sinularia triangular led to the isolation of five cembrane-based diterpenoids 15, including two new metabolites, triangulenes A (1) and B (2). The structures of the new metabolites were determined
[...] Read more.
Chemical examination of the Taiwanese soft coral Sinularia triangular led to the isolation of five cembrane-based diterpenoids 15, including two new metabolites, triangulenes A (1) and B (2). The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, particularly mass spectroscopy and 2D NMR (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy. Metabolites 3 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to human tumor cell lines CCRF-CEM and DLD-1. Furthermore, 35 displayed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein. Metabolites 4 and 5 also effectively reduced the expression of the COX-2 protein in the macrophages. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Heterofucans from the Seaweed Sargassum filipendula
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 952-966; doi:10.3390/md9060952
Received: 9 April 2011 / Revised: 26 May 2011 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 / Published: 7 June 2011
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucan is a term used to denominate a type of polysaccharide which contains substantial percentages of L-fucose and sulfate ester groups. We obtained five heterofucans from Sargassum filipendula by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose,
[...] Read more.
Fucan is a term used to denominate a type of polysaccharide which contains substantial percentages of L-fucose and sulfate ester groups. We obtained five heterofucans from Sargassum filipendula by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. These fucans did not show anticoagulant activity in PT and aPTT tests. Their antioxidant activity was evaluated using the follow tests; total antioxidant capacity, scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, reducing power and ferrous ion [Fe(II)] chelating. All heterofucans displayed considerable activity, especially SF-1.0v which showed the most significant antioxidant potential with 90.7 ascorbic acid equivalents in a total antioxidant capacity test and similar activity when compared with vitamin C in a reducing power assay. The fucan antiproliferative activity was performed with HeLa, PC3 and HepG2 cells using MTT test. In all tested conditions the heterofucans exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The strongest inhibition was observed in HeLa cells, where SF-1.0 and SF-1.5 exhibited considerable activity with an IC50 value of 15.69 and 13.83 µM, respectively. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of S. filipendula polysaccharides as antiproliferative and antioxidant. Further purification steps and additional studies on structural features as well as in vivo experiments are needed to test the viability of their use as therapeutic agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 967-983; doi:10.3390/md9060967
Received: 29 April 2011 / Revised: 20 May 2011 / Accepted: 26 May 2011 / Published: 7 June 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase
[...] Read more.
Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biomaterials)
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Open AccessCommunication DedA Protein Relates to Action-Mechanism of Halicyclamine A, a Marine Spongean Macrocyclic Alkaloid, as an Anti-dormant Mycobacterial Substance
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 984-993; doi:10.3390/md9060984
Received: 1 April 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 3 June 2011 / Published: 8 June 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A macrocyclic alkaloid, halicyclamine A, was re-discovered from an Indonesian marine sponge of Haliclona sp. 05A08 as an anti-dormant mycobacterial substance. To clarify action-mechanism of halicyclamine A, halicyclamine A-resistant strains were screened from the transformants of Mycobacterium smegmatis with the genomic DNA library
[...] Read more.
A macrocyclic alkaloid, halicyclamine A, was re-discovered from an Indonesian marine sponge of Haliclona sp. 05A08 as an anti-dormant mycobacterial substance. To clarify action-mechanism of halicyclamine A, halicyclamine A-resistant strains were screened from the transformants of Mycobacterium smegmatis with the genomic DNA library of M. bovis BCG, which were constructed in the multi-copy shuttle cosmid pYUB145. Sequencing analysis of the cosmids isolated from the halicyclamine A-resistant transformants revealed that the responsible gene was involved in the genome region between 2920.549 kb and 2933.210 kb. Further experiments using the transformants over-expressing individual gene contained in the responsible region were executed, and the transformant, which over-expressed BCG2664 gene assigned as dedA gene, was found to become halicyclamine A-resistant. This evidence strongly suggested that DedA protein correlates with the action-mechanism of halicyclamine A as an anti-dormant mycobacterial substance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Cembranoids from the Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 994-1006; doi:10.3390/md9060994
Received: 25 April 2011 / Revised: 26 May 2011 / Accepted: 30 May 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seven new cembranoids, sarcocrassocolides F–L (17), have been isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Most new compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against a limited panel of cancer cell lines,
[...] Read more.
Seven new cembranoids, sarcocrassocolides F–L (17), have been isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Most new compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against a limited panel of cancer cell lines, and the structure–activity relationship was studied. Compounds 17 were found to display significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein. Compound 4 was also found to effectively reduce the level of COX-2 protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plitidepsin Has a Safe Cardiac Profile: A Comprehensive Analysis
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1007-1023; doi:10.3390/md9061007
Received: 28 April 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 31 May 2011 / Published: 9 June 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin in clinical development in cancer patients. Previously, some depsipeptides have been linked to increased cardiac toxicity. Clinical databases were searched for cardiac adverse events (CAEs) that occurred in clinical trials with the single-agent plitidepsin. Demographic,
[...] Read more.
Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin in clinical development in cancer patients. Previously, some depsipeptides have been linked to increased cardiac toxicity. Clinical databases were searched for cardiac adverse events (CAEs) that occurred in clinical trials with the single-agent plitidepsin. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological variables were explored by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Forty-six of 578 treated patients (8.0%) had at least one CAE (11 patients (1.9%) with plitidepsin-related CAEs), none with fatal outcome as a direct consequence. The more frequent CAEs were rhythm abnormalities (n = 31; 5.4%), mostly atrial fibrillation/flutter (n = 15; 2.6%). Of note, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias did not occur. Myocardial injury events (n = 17; 3.0%) included possible ischemic-related and non-ischemic events. Other events (miscellaneous, n = 6; 1.0%) were not related to plitidepsin. Significant associations were found with prostate or pancreas cancer primary diagnosis (p = 0.0017), known baseline cardiac risk factors (p = 0.0072), myalgia present at baseline (p = 0.0140), hemoglobin levels lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0208) and grade ≥2 hypokalemia (p = 0.0095). Treatment-related variables (plitidepsin dose, number of cycles, schedule and/or total cumulative dose) were not associated. Electrocardiograms performed before and after plitidepsin administration (n = 136) detected no relevant effect on QTc interval. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed had a significant impact on the probability of developing a CAE. In conclusion, the most frequent CAE type was atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter, although its frequency was not different to that reported in the age-matched healthy population, while other CAEs types were rare. No dose-cumulative pattern was observed, and no treatment-related variables were associated with CAEs. Relevant risk factors identified were related to the patient’s condition and/or to disease-related characteristics rather than to drug exposure. Therefore, the current analysis supports a safe cardiac risk profile for single-agent plitidepsin in cancer patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chitosan Nanoparticles Act as an Adjuvant to Promote both Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses Induced by Ovalbumin in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1038-1055; doi:10.3390/md9061038
Received: 1 May 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study was conducted to investigate the promoted immune response to ovalbumin in mice by chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) and its toxicity. CNP did not cause any mortality or side effects when mice were administered subcutaneously twice with a dose of 1.5 mg at
[...] Read more.
The study was conducted to investigate the promoted immune response to ovalbumin in mice by chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) and its toxicity. CNP did not cause any mortality or side effects when mice were administered subcutaneously twice with a dose of 1.5 mg at 7-day intervals. Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were immunized subcutaneously with 25 µg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 25 µg OVA dissolved in saline containing Quil A (10 µg), chitosan (CS) (50 µg) or CNP (12.5, 50 or 200 µg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, serum OVA-specific antibody titers, splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, and production and mRNA expression of cytokines from splenocytes were measured. The serum OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody titers and Con A-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation were significantly enhanced by CNP (P < 0.05) as compared with OVA and CS groups. CNP also significantly promoted the production of Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-10) cytokines and up-regulated the mRNA expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines in splenocytes from the immunized mice compared with OVA and CS groups. Besides, CNP remarkably increased the killing activities of NK cells activity (P < 0.05). The results suggested that CNP had a strong potential to increase both cellular and humoral immune responses and elicited a balanced Th1/Th2 response, and that CNP may be a safe and efficacious adjuvant candidate suitable for a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1119-1132; doi:10.3390/md9061119
Received: 21 March 2011 / Revised: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds
[...] Read more.
Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Swinholide J, a Potent Cytotoxin from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1133-1141; doi:10.3390/md9061133
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 9 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 22 June 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our ongoing search for new pharmacologically active leads from Solomon organisms, we have examined the sponge Theonella swinhoei. Herein we report the isolation and structure elucidation of swinholide A (1) and one new macrolide, swinholide J (2). Swinholide
[...] Read more.
In our ongoing search for new pharmacologically active leads from Solomon organisms, we have examined the sponge Theonella swinhoei. Herein we report the isolation and structure elucidation of swinholide A (1) and one new macrolide, swinholide J (2). Swinholide J is an unprecedented asymmetric 44-membered dilactone with an epoxide functionality in half of the molecule. The structural determination was based on extensive interpretation of high-field NMR spectra and HRESIMS data. Swinholide J displayed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against KB cells (human nasopharynx cancer) with an IC50 value of 6 nM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Heated Sterilized Pepsin Hydrolysate Derived from Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty)
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1142-1156; doi:10.3390/md9061142
Received: 9 May 2011 / Revised: 14 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H). Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the
[...] Read more.
In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H). Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the molecular weight distribution between the half-fin anchovy pepsin hydrolysate (HAHp) and HAHp-H. Results showed that heat sterilization on HAHp improved the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, the antiproliferative activities were all increased for HAHp-H on DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line, 1299 human lung cancer cell line and 109 human esophagus cancer cell line. The contents of free amino acid and reducing sugar of HAHp-H were decreased (P < 0.05). However, hydrophobic amino acid residues and the browning intensity of HAHp-H were increased. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that amide I and amide III bands of HAHp-H were slightly modified, whereas band intensity of amide II was reduced dramatically. Thermal sterilization resulted in the increased fractions of HAHp-H with molecular weight of 3000–5000 Da and below 500 Da. The enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of HAHp-H might be attributed to the Maillard reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessArticle Zorrimidazolone, a Bioactive Alkaloid from the Non-Indigenous Mediterranean Stolidobranch Polyandrocarpa zorritensis
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1157-1165; doi:10.3390/md9061157
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 31 May 2011 / Accepted: 16 June 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical analysis of the Mediterranean ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis (Van Name 1931) resulted in the isolation of a series of molecules including two monoindole alkaloids, 3-indolylglyoxylic acid (3) and its methyl ester (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid methyl ester (1)
[...] Read more.
Chemical analysis of the Mediterranean ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis (Van Name 1931) resulted in the isolation of a series of molecules including two monoindole alkaloids, 3-indolylglyoxylic acid (3) and its methyl ester (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid methyl ester (1) and a new alkaloid we named zorrimidazolone (2). The structure of the novel compound 2 has been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and bioactivity of all compounds has been investigated. Zorrimidazolone (2) showed a modest cytotoxic activity against C6 rat glioma cell line. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1024-1037; doi:10.3390/md9061024
Received: 1 April 2011 / Revised: 3 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 10 June 2011
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human
[...] Read more.
Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
Open AccessReview Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1056-1100; doi:10.3390/md9061056
Received: 2 April 2011 / Revised: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 8 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Cited by 150 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the
[...] Read more.
The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
Open AccessReview Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(6), 1101-1118; doi:10.3390/md9061101
Received: 2 May 2011 / Revised: 31 May 2011 / Accepted: 8 June 2011 / Published: 15 June 2011
Cited by 129 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of
[...] Read more.
For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, peridinin and siphonaxanthin. The distribution of α-carotene and its derivatives, such as lutein, loroxanthin and siphonaxanthin, are limited to divisions of Rhodophyta (macrophytic type), Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorarachniophyta and Chlorophyta. In addition, carotenogenesis pathways are discussed based on the chemical structures of carotenoids and known characteristics of carotenogenesis enzymes in other organisms; genes and enzymes for carotenogenesis in algae are not yet known. Most carotenoids bind to membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, such as reaction center, light-harvesting and cytochrome b6f complexes. Water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) and orange carotenoid protein (OCP) are also established. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))

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