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Mar. Drugs, Volume 12, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 5089-5327

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Methylthio-Aspochalasins from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5124-5131; doi:10.3390/md12105124
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 20 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two novel aspochalasins, 20-β-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V), (1) and aspochalasin W (2), were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined
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Two novel aspochalasins, 20-β-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V), (1) and aspochalasin W (2), were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 μM, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Salicornia herbacea on Osteoblastogenesis and Adipogenesis in Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5132-5147; doi:10.3390/md12105132
Received: 17 January 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone-related complications are among the highest concerning metabolic diseases in the modern world. Bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture increase with age and diseases like osteoporosis. Elevated adipogenesis in bone results in osteoporosis and loss of bone mass when coupled with lack of
[...] Read more.
Bone-related complications are among the highest concerning metabolic diseases in the modern world. Bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture increase with age and diseases like osteoporosis. Elevated adipogenesis in bone results in osteoporosis and loss of bone mass when coupled with lack of osteoblastogenesis. In this study the potential effect of Salicornia herbacea extract against osteoporotic conditions was evaluated. Adipogenesis inhibitory effect of S. herbacea has been evidenced by decreased lipid accumulation of differentiating cells and expression levels of crucial adipogenesis markers in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. S. herbacea treatment reduced the lipid accumulation by 25% of the control. In addition, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)1c were inhibited by the presence of S. herbacea. Bone formation enhancement effect of S. herbacea was also confirmed in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. The presence of S. herbacea significantly elevated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity by 120% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL in differentiating osteoblasts. S. herbacea also significantly increased the expression of osteoblastogenesis indicators, ALP, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, osteocalcin and collagen type I (collagen-I). In conclusion, S. herbacea possess potential to be utilized as a source of anti-osteoporotic agent that can inhibit adipogenesis while promoting osteoblastogenesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Suvanine Sesterterpenes from a Tropical Sponge Coscinoderma sp. Inhibit Isocitrate Lyase in the Glyoxylate Cycle
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5148-5159; doi:10.3390/md12105148
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 6 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS). Mutants of Candida albicans lacking ICL are markedly less virulent in mice than the wild-type. Suvanine sesterterpenes (19)
[...] Read more.
The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS). Mutants of Candida albicans lacking ICL are markedly less virulent in mice than the wild-type. Suvanine sesterterpenes (19) isolated from a tropical sponge Coscinoderma sp. were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward recombinant ICL from C. albicans. These studies led to the identification of a potent ICL inhibitor, suvanine salt (2), which possesses a sodium counterion and displays an inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 6.35 μM. The growth phenotype of ICL deletion mutants and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses indicated that compound 2 inhibits the ICL mRNA expression in C. albicans under C2-carbon-utilizing conditions. The present data highlight the potential for suvanine sesterterpenes treatment of C. albicans infections via inhibition of ICL activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle New Isocoumarin Derivatives and Meroterpenoids from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Aspergillus similanensis sp. nov. KUFA 0013
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5160-5173; doi:10.3390/md12105160
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6)
[...] Read more.
Two new isocoumarin derivatives, including a new 5-hydroxy-8-methyl-2H, 6H-pyrano[3,4-g]chromen-2,6-dione (1) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethylisocoumarin (2b), a new chevalone derivative, named chevalone E (3), and a new natural product pyripyropene S (6) were isolated together with 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (2a), reticulol (2c), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, chevalone B, chevalone C, S14-95 (4), and pyripyropene E (5) from the ethyl acetate extract of the undescribed marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and in the case of compound 3, X-ray analysis was used to confirm its structure and the absolute configuration of its stereogenic carbons. Compounds 1, 2ac and 36 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Chevalone E (3) was found to show synergism with the antibiotic oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5174-5187; doi:10.3390/md12105174
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine,
[...] Read more.
Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. Full article
Open AccessCommunication New Oxidized Zoanthamines from a Canary Islands Zoanthus sp.
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5188-5196; doi:10.3390/md12105188
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 18 September 2014 / Published: 14 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new norzoanthamine-type alkaloids, named 2-hydroxy-11-ketonorzoan thamide B (1), norzoanthamide B (2) and 15-hydroxynorzoanthamine (3), were isolated from Zoanthus sp. specimens collected at the Canary Islands. Their structures were determined by interpretation of NMR and HR-ESIMS data.
[...] Read more.
Three new norzoanthamine-type alkaloids, named 2-hydroxy-11-ketonorzoan thamide B (1), norzoanthamide B (2) and 15-hydroxynorzoanthamine (3), were isolated from Zoanthus sp. specimens collected at the Canary Islands. Their structures were determined by interpretation of NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Relative configurations of their chiral centers were proposed on the basis of ROESY spectra and by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those of the well-known compound, norzoanthamine. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Butrepyrazinone, a New Pyrazinone with an Unusual Methylation Pattern from a Ghanaian Verrucosispora sp. K51G
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5197-5208; doi:10.3390/md12105197
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report the structural characterization of a new pyrazinone analogue; butrepyrazinone, which was isolated from a new actinomycete strain Verrucosispora sp. K51G recovered from Ghanaian mangrove river sediment. Spectroscopy-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a compound from the fermentation culture and a
[...] Read more.
We report the structural characterization of a new pyrazinone analogue; butrepyrazinone, which was isolated from a new actinomycete strain Verrucosispora sp. K51G recovered from Ghanaian mangrove river sediment. Spectroscopy-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a compound from the fermentation culture and a combination of NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry and computer-aided calculations revealed that butrepyrazinone (10) possesses an unusual methylation pattern on the pyrazinone ring. Butrepyrazinone (10), however, displayed no antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 25923, the Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 and a panel of clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, suggesting that 10 may act as a signal molecule for this strain. Although the same molecule has been synthesized previously, this is the first report to disclose the discovery of butrepyrazinone (10) from nature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modification of Marine Natural Product Ningalin B and SAR Study Lead to Potent P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5209-5221; doi:10.3390/md12105209
Received: 11 March 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds
[...] Read more.
In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloid Analogs)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Eusynstyelamide B as a Potent Cell Cycle Inhibitor Following the Generation and Screening of an Ascidian-Derived Extract Library Using a Real Time Cell Analyzer
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5222-5239; doi:10.3390/md12105222
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ascidians are marine invertebrates that have been a source of numerous cytotoxic compounds. Of the first six marine-derived drugs that made anticancer clinical trials, three originated from ascidian specimens. In order to identify new anti-neoplastic compounds, an ascidian extract library (143 samples) was
[...] Read more.
Ascidians are marine invertebrates that have been a source of numerous cytotoxic compounds. Of the first six marine-derived drugs that made anticancer clinical trials, three originated from ascidian specimens. In order to identify new anti-neoplastic compounds, an ascidian extract library (143 samples) was generated and screened in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA). This resulted in 143 time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRP), which are read-outs of changes to the growth rate, morphology, and adhesive characteristics of the cell culture. Twenty-one extracts affected the TCRP of MDA-MB-231 cells and were further investigated regarding toxicity and specificity, as well as their effects on cell morphology and cell cycle. The results of these studies were used to prioritize extracts for bioassay-guided fractionation, which led to the isolation of the previously identified marine natural product, eusynstyelamide B (1). This bis-indole alkaloid was shown to display an IC50 of 5 µM in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 1 caused a strong cell cycle arrest in G2/M and induced apoptosis after 72 h treatment, making this molecule an attractive candidate for further mechanism of action studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity of Peptides Derived from Olive Flounder Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein/Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein (LBP/BPI)
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5240-5257; doi:10.3390/md12105240
Received: 25 July 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 7 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria,
[...] Read more.
We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
Open AccessArticle SxtA and sxtG Gene Expression and Toxin Production in the Mediterranean Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae)
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5258-5276; doi:10.3390/md12105258
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known for the production of potent neurotoxins affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the toxin content and the expression level of
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The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known for the production of potent neurotoxins affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the toxin content and the expression level of the genes involved in paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production. The algal cultures were grown both in standard f/2 medium and in phosphorus/nitrogen limitation. In our study, LC-HRMS analyses of PST profile and content in different Mediterranean A. minutum strains confirmed that this species was able to synthesize mainly the saxitoxin analogues Gonyautoxin-1 (GTX1) and Gonyautoxin-4 (GTX4). The average cellular toxin content varied among different strains, and between growth phases, highlighting a decreasing trend from exponential to stationary phase in all culture conditions tested. The absolute quantities of intracellular sxtA1 and sxtG mRNA were not correlated with the amount of intracellular toxins in the analysed A. minutum suggesting that the production of toxins may be regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms and/or by the concerted actions of alternative genes belonging to the PST biosynthesis gene cluster. Therefore, it is likely that the sxtA1 and sxtG gene expression could not reflect the PST accumulation in the Mediterranean A. minutum populations under the examined standard and nutrient limiting conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Dinoflagellates)
Open AccessArticle Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5277-5294; doi:10.3390/md12105277
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase,
[...] Read more.
Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide Induces Apoptosis on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells Through Mitochondria-Related Apoptotic Pathways: p38/JNK Activation and PI3K/AKT Suppression
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5295-5315; doi:10.3390/md12105295
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation
[...] Read more.
13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assessment, cell wound-healing assay, TUNEL/4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 13-AC inhibited the growth and migration of gastric carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometer analysis. 13-AC-induced apoptosis was confirmed through observation of a change in ΔΨm, up-regulated expression levels of Bax and Bad proteins, down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 proteins, and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, p38 and JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 and JNK activity by pretreatment with SB03580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK-specific inhibitor) led to rescue of the cell cytotoxicity of 13-AC-treated AGS cells, indicating that the p38 and the JNK pathways are also involved in the 13-AC-induced cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that 13-AC induces cell apoptosis against gastric cancer cells through triggering of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway as well as activation of the p38 and JNK pathways. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sinulolides A–H, New Cyclopentenone and Butenolide Derivatives from Soft Coral Sinularia sp.
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5316-5327; doi:10.3390/md12105316
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eight new compounds, sinulolides A–H (18), along with two known compounds, α-methoxy-2,3-dimethyl-butenolide (9) and sinularone D (10), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis
[...] Read more.
Eight new compounds, sinulolides A–H (18), along with two known compounds, α-methoxy-2,3-dimethyl-butenolide (9) and sinularone D (10), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations were determined on the basis of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis. Compounds 5 and 10 exhibited moderate effects for the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Microbial Communities and Bioactive Compounds in Marine Sponges of the Family Irciniidae—A Review
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5089-5122; doi:10.3390/md12105089
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 12 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine sponges harbour complex microbial communities of ecological and biotechnological importance. Here, we propose the application of the widespread sponge family Irciniidae as an appropriate model in microbiology and biochemistry research. Half a gram of one Irciniidae specimen hosts hundreds of bacterial species—the
[...] Read more.
Marine sponges harbour complex microbial communities of ecological and biotechnological importance. Here, we propose the application of the widespread sponge family Irciniidae as an appropriate model in microbiology and biochemistry research. Half a gram of one Irciniidae specimen hosts hundreds of bacterial species—the vast majority of which are difficult to cultivate—and dozens of fungal and archaeal species. The structure of these symbiont assemblages is shaped by the sponge host and is highly stable over space and time. Two types of quorum-sensing molecules have been detected in these animals, hinting at microbe-microbe and host-microbe signalling being important processes governing the dynamics of the Irciniidae holobiont. Irciniids are vulnerable to disease outbreaks, and concerns have emerged about their conservation in a changing climate. They are nevertheless amenable to mariculture and laboratory maintenance, being attractive targets for metabolite harvesting and experimental biology endeavours. Several bioactive terpenoids and polyketides have been retrieved from Irciniidae sponges, but the actual producer (host or symbiont) of these compounds has rarely been clarified. To tackle this, and further pertinent questions concerning the functioning, resilience and physiology of these organisms, truly multi-layered approaches integrating cutting-edge microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and zoology research are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Microbes)
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Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Xiao, X., et al. Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induction in Human Tumor Cells by Galaxamide and Its Analogues. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4521–4538
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(10), 5123; doi:10.3390/md12105123
Received: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have found the following error in the title of this article, which was recently published in Mar. Drugs [1]: a word “paper” has been inserted at the beginning of title by mistake. [...] Full article
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