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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2014), Pages 634-753

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle A Bombesin-Shepherdin Radioconjugate Designed for Combined Extra- and Intracellular Targeting
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 662-675; doi:10.3390/ph7060662
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 17 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Radiolabeled peptides which target tumor-specific membrane structures of cancer cells represent a promising class of targeted radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. A potential drawback of a number of reported radiopeptides is the rapid washout of a substantial fraction of the
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Radiolabeled peptides which target tumor-specific membrane structures of cancer cells represent a promising class of targeted radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. A potential drawback of a number of reported radiopeptides is the rapid washout of a substantial fraction of the initially delivered radioactivity from cancer cells and tumors. This renders the initial targeting effort in part futile and results in a lower imaging quality and efficacy of the radiotracer than achievable. We are investigating the combination of internalizing radiopeptides with molecular entities specific for an intracellular target. By enabling intracellular interactions of the radioconjugate, we aim at reducing/decelerating the externalization of radioactivity from cancer cells. Using the “click-to-chelate” approach, the 99mTc-tricarbonyl core as a reporter probe for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was combined with the binding sequence of bombesin for extracellular targeting of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) and peptidic inhibitors of the cytosolic heat shock 90 protein (Hsp90) for intracellular targeting. Receptor-specific uptake of the multifunctional radioconjugate could be confirmed, however, the cellular washout of radioactivity was not improved. We assume that either endosomal trapping or lysosomal degradation of the radioconjugate is accountable for these observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry between Imaging and Radioendotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Part Two: Evaluation of N-methylbupropion as a Potential Bupropion Prodrug
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 676-694; doi:10.3390/ph7060676
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
PDF Full-text (592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
N-methylbupropion was selected as a potential prodrug from our in vitro screening of analogues of bupropion described in the preceding paper. This study describes in vivo pharmacokinetics of N-methylbupropion in the guinea-pig animal model, which is reported to best predict human
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N-methylbupropion was selected as a potential prodrug from our in vitro screening of analogues of bupropion described in the preceding paper. This study describes in vivo pharmacokinetics of N-methylbupropion in the guinea-pig animal model, which is reported to best predict human metabolism of bupropion. The suitability of the guinea pig was established by studying N-demethylation of N-methylbupropion using S9 liver fractions. An LC-MS method was developed and validated to measure N-methylbupropion, bupropion and their metabolites in plasma and brain tissue. In separate studies, the prodrug was delivered by intraperitoneal injection (IP) to assess hepatic metabolism and then by oral gavage (PO) to assess the contribution from intestinal enzymes. Bupropion was administered in parallel. The pharmacokinetic profile of bupropion and N-methylbupropion were not comparable when dosed by intraperitoneal injection but when dosed orally, N-methylbupropion showed a comparable bupropion and metabolite PK plasma profile to bupropion. Plasma and brain levels of N-methylbupropion show that it is extensively metabolized to bupropion and its metabolites, and N-methyl-threo-hydrobupropion. This data coupled to the reduced DAT and NET system in vitro activity described in paper 1 would suggest that the N-methyl derivative of bupropion may have potential as an oral prodrug of bupropion in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Prodrugs: from Design to Clinic)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Conformational Analysis, Molecular Structure and Solid State Simulation of the Antiviral Drug Acyclovir (Zovirax) Using Density Functional Theory Methods
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 695-722; doi:10.3390/ph7060695
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The five tautomers of the drug acyclovir (ACV) were determined and optimised at the MP2 and B3LYP quantum chemical levels of theory. The stability of the tautomers was correlated with different parameters. On the most stable tautomer N1 was carried out a comprehensive
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The five tautomers of the drug acyclovir (ACV) were determined and optimised at the MP2 and B3LYP quantum chemical levels of theory. The stability of the tautomers was correlated with different parameters. On the most stable tautomer N1 was carried out a comprehensive conformational analysis, and the whole conformational parameters (R, β, Φ, φ1, φ2, φ3, φ4, φ5) were studied as well as the NBO Natural atomic charges. The calculations were carried out with full relaxation of all geometrical parameters. The search located at least 78 stable structures within 8.5 kcal/mol electronic energy range of the global minimum, and classified in two groups according to the positive or negative value of the torsional angle j1. In the nitrogen atoms and in the O2' and O5' oxygen atoms of the most stable conformer appear a higher reactivity than in the natural nucleoside deoxyguanosine. The solid state was simulated through a dimer and tetramer forms and the structural parameters were compared with the X-ray crystal data available. Several general conclusions were emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Prodrugs: from Design to Clinic)

Review

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Open AccessReview Involvement of HDAC1 and HDAC3 in the Pathology of Polyglutamine Disorders: Therapeutic Implications for Selective HDAC1/HDAC3 Inhibitors
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 634-661; doi:10.3390/ph7060634
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzymes, which affect the acetylation status of histones and other important cellular proteins, have been recognized as potentially useful therapeutic targets for a broad range of human disorders. Emerging studies have demonstrated that different types of HDAC inhibitors show beneficial
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzymes, which affect the acetylation status of histones and other important cellular proteins, have been recognized as potentially useful therapeutic targets for a broad range of human disorders. Emerging studies have demonstrated that different types of HDAC inhibitors show beneficial effects in various experimental models of neurological disorders. HDAC enzymes comprise a large family of proteins, with18 HDAC enzymes currently identified in humans. Hence, an important question for HDAC inhibitor therapeutics is which HDAC enzyme(s) is/are important for the amelioration of disease phenotypes, as it has become clear that individual HDAC enzymes play different biological roles in the brain. This review will discuss evidence supporting the involvement of HDAC1 and HDAC3 in polyglutamine disorders, including Huntington’s disease, and the use of HDAC1- and HDAC3-selective HDAC inhibitors as therapeutic intervention for these disorders. Further, while HDAC inhibitors are known alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in gene transcription, understanding the exact mechanisms responsible for the preclinical efficacy of these compounds remains a challenge. The potential chromatin-related and non-chromatin-related mechanisms of action of selective HDAC inhibitors will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HDAC Inhibitors 2014)
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 723-753; doi:10.3390/ph7060723
Received: 6 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (3517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in
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Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. Full article

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