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Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 723-753; doi:10.3390/ph7060723

Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, and School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, MS1H8, 10910 University Blvd, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
Received: 6 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development.
Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; antibacterial; reptile; biofilm; broad-spectrum; Gram-positive; Gram-negative antimicrobial peptides; antibacterial; reptile; biofilm; broad-spectrum; Gram-positive; Gram-negative
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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van Hoek, M.L. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 723-753.

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