Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(6), 723-753; doi:10.3390/ph7060723
Review

Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

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Received: 6 March 2014; in revised form: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development.
Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; antibacterial; reptile; biofilm; broad-spectrum; Gram-positive; Gram-negative
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Hoek, M.L. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles. Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7, 723-753.

AMA Style

van Hoek ML. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles. Pharmaceuticals. 2014; 7(6):723-753.

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Hoek, Monique L. 2014. "Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles." Pharmaceuticals 7, no. 6: 723-753.

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