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Sensors, Volume 6, Issue 8 (August 2006), Pages 783-1086

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 785-795; doi:10.3390/s6080785
Received: 17 January 2006 / Accepted: 12 April 2006 / Published: 16 August 2006
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer asreceptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface ismodified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivityfor thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is
[...] Read more.
We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer asreceptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface ismodified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivityfor thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectralposition of the microsphere’s whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on theorder of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptameroligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding betweenaptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development ofhighly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughputthan current technology. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fiber-Optic Biosensor Employing Alexa-Fluor Conjugated Antibody for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Ground Beef in Four Hours
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 796-807; doi:10.3390/s6080796
Received: 3 February 2006 / Accepted: 12 April 2006 / Published: 19 August 2006
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (89 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber optic biosensor has a great potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive,and real-time microbial detection systems. We developed an antibody-based fiber-opticbiosensor to rapidly detect low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef. Theprinciple of the sensor is a sandwich
[...] Read more.
Fiber optic biosensor has a great potential to meet the need for rapid, sensitive,and real-time microbial detection systems. We developed an antibody-based fiber-opticbiosensor to rapidly detect low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in ground beef. Theprinciple of the sensor is a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody which is specific forE. coli O157:H7. A polyclonal antibody was first immobilized on polystyrene fiberwaveguides through a biotin-streptavidin reaction that served as a capture antibody. AnAlexa Fluor 647 dye-labeled antibody to E. coli O157:H7 was used to detect cells andgenerate a specific fluorescent signal, which was acquired by launching a 635 nm laser-lightfrom an Analyte-2000. Fluorescent molecules within several hundred nanometers of thefiber were excited by an evanescent wave, and a portion of the emission light fromfluorescent dye transmitted by the fiber and collected by a photodetector at wavelengths of670 to 710 nm quantitatively. This immunosensor was specific for E. coli O157:H7compared with multiple other foodborne bacteria. In addition, the biosensor was able todetect as low as 103 CFU/ml pure cultured E. coli O157:H7 cells grown in culture broth.Artificially inoculated E. coli O157:H7 at concentration of 1 CFU/ml in ground beef couldbe detected by this method after only 4 hours of enrichment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibody Immobilization on Waveguides Using aFlow–Through System Shows Improved Listeria monocytogenesDetection in an Automated Fiber Optic Biosensor: RAPTORTM
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 808-822; doi:10.3390/s6080808
Received: 6 February 2006 / Accepted: 9 June 2006 / Published: 19 August 2006
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent outbreaks of food borne illnesses continue to support the need for rapidand sensitive methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. A method for detecting Listeriamonocytogenes in food samples was developed using an automated fiber-optic-basedimmunosensor, RAPTORTM. Detection of L. monocytogenes in phosphate
[...] Read more.
Recent outbreaks of food borne illnesses continue to support the need for rapidand sensitive methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. A method for detecting Listeriamonocytogenes in food samples was developed using an automated fiber-optic-basedimmunosensor, RAPTORTM. Detection of L. monocytogenes in phosphate buffered saline(PBS) was performed to evaluate both static and flow through antibody immobilizationmethods for capture antibodies in a sandwich assay. Subsequent detection in frankfurtersamples was conducted using a flow through immobilization system. A two stage blockingusing biotinylated bovine serum albumin (b-BSA) and BSA was effectively employed toreduce the non-specific binding. The sandwich assay using static or flow through mode ofantibody immobilization could detect 1 Full article
Open AccessArticle Single-crystal Sapphire Based Optical Polarimetric Sensor for High Temperature Measurement
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 823-834; doi:10.3390/s6080823
Received: 19 December 2005 / Accepted: 12 February 2006 / Published: 21 August 2006
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical sensors have been investigated and widely deployed in industrial andscientific measurement and control processes, mainly due to their accuracy, high sensitivityand immunity to electromagnetic interference and other unique characteristics. They areespecially suited for harsh environments applications, where no commercial electricalsensors are available
[...] Read more.
Optical sensors have been investigated and widely deployed in industrial andscientific measurement and control processes, mainly due to their accuracy, high sensitivityand immunity to electromagnetic interference and other unique characteristics. They areespecially suited for harsh environments applications, where no commercial electricalsensors are available for long-term stable operations. This paper reports a novel contactoptical high temperature sensor targeting at harsh environments. Utilizing birefringentsingle crystal sapphire as the sensing element and white light interferometric signalprocessing techniques, an optical birefringence based temperature sensor was developed.With a simple mechanically structured sensing probe, and an optical spectrum-codedinterferometric signal processor, it has been tested to measure temperature up to 1600 °Cwith high accuracy, high resolution, and long-term measurement stability. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nanoporous Zeolite Thin Film-Based Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor for Detection of Dissolved Organics in Water
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 835-847; doi:10.3390/s6080835
Received: 17 March 2006 / Accepted: 2 May 2006 / Published: 22 August 2006
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fiber optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (IFPI) chemical sensor wasdeveloped by fine-polishing a thin layer of polycrystalline nanoporous MFI zeolitesynthesized on the cleaved endface of a single mode fiber. The sensor operated bymonitoring the optical thickness changes of the zeolite thin film caused
[...] Read more.
A fiber optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (IFPI) chemical sensor wasdeveloped by fine-polishing a thin layer of polycrystalline nanoporous MFI zeolitesynthesized on the cleaved endface of a single mode fiber. The sensor operated bymonitoring the optical thickness changes of the zeolite thin film caused by the adsorption oforganic molecules into the zeolite channels. The optical thickness of the zeolite thin filmwas measured by white light interferometry. Using methanol, 2-propanol, and toluene as themodel chemicals, it was demonstrated that the zeolite IPFI sensor could detect dissolvedorganics in water with high sensitivity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 848-859; doi:10.3390/s6080648
Received: 7 March 2006 / Accepted: 1 May 2006 / Published: 23 August 2006
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-baseddevice developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol greenmembrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LEDfunctioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured
[...] Read more.
A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-baseddevice developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol greenmembrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LEDfunctioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventionalemission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for thephotocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from logic 1 ( 5 V)to logic 0 ( 1.7 V). The entire instrument provides an inherently digital output of lightintensity measurements for a few cents. A light dependent resistor (LDR) modified withsimilar sensor membrane was also used as a comparison method. Both the LED sensor andthe LDR sensor responded to various pH buffer solutions in a similar way to obtainsigmoidal curves expected of the dye. The pKa value obtained for the sensors was found toagree with the literature value. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nucleoside Sensing
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 860-873; doi:10.3390/s6080860
Received: 5 April 2006 / Accepted: 7 June 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rigid molecular clip comprising bisphosphonate binding sites and aromaticsidewalls forming an electron-rich cavity is able to distinguish between nucleosides andnucleotides in aqueous solution. Neutral nucleosides as well as antibiotics derived thereofare drawn into the unpolar interior of the cleft and lead to
[...] Read more.
A rigid molecular clip comprising bisphosphonate binding sites and aromaticsidewalls forming an electron-rich cavity is able to distinguish between nucleosides andnucleotides in aqueous solution. Neutral nucleosides as well as antibiotics derived thereofare drawn into the unpolar interior of the cleft and lead to substantial upfield-shifts in the 1HNMR spectrum. Nucleoside drugs can therefore be detected with high selectivity in thepresence of their phosphorylated pendants or nucleic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Anodic Oxidation and Amperometric Sensing of Hydrazine at a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Cobalt (II) Phthalocyanine–cobalt (II) Tetraphenylporphyrin (CoPc- (CoTPP)4) Supramolecular Complex
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 874-891; doi:10.3390/s6080874
Received: 11 April 2006 / Accepted: 8 June 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the electrocatalytic behaviour of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE)modified with cobalt(II)phthalocyanine (CoPc) complex peripherally tetrasubstituted withcobalt(II)tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) complexes via ether linkages (i.e., CoPc-(CoTPP)4). Thefeatures of the immobilised pentamer were interrogated with cyclic voltammetry andelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using [Fe(CN)6
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the electrocatalytic behaviour of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE)modified with cobalt(II)phthalocyanine (CoPc) complex peripherally tetrasubstituted withcobalt(II)tetraphenylporphyrin (CoTPP) complexes via ether linkages (i.e., CoPc-(CoTPP)4). Thefeatures of the immobilised pentamer were interrogated with cyclic voltammetry andelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as redox probe revealedenhanced electron transfer properties with kapp ≈ 18 x 10-6 cms-1 compared to that of the bareGCE (4.7 x 10-6 cms-1). The viability of this supramolecular complex as a redox mediator for theanodic oxidation and sensitive amperometric determination of hydrazine in alkaline conditions isdescribed. The electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine by GCE-CoPc-(CoTPP)4 was characterisedwith satisfactory catalytic current response with low non-Faradaic current (ca. 30 times lowerthan the bare GCE) and at much lower oxidation potential (ca. 300 mV lower than the bareGCE). A mechanism for the studied electrocatalytic reaction was proposed based on thespectrophotometric evidence that revealed the major involvement of the Co(III)/Co(II) redox coupleof the central CoPc species rather than the CoTPP component of the pentamer. Rate constant forthe anodic oxidation of hydrazine was estimated from chronoamperometry as ~ 3x103 M-1s-1. Theproposed amperometric sensor displayed excellent charateristics towards the determination ofhydrazine in 0.2 M NaOH ; such as low overpotentials ( 100 mV vs Ag|AgCl), very fastamperometric response time (1 s), linear concentration range of up to 230 μM, with micromolardetection limit, high sensitivity and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A New Composition for Co(II)-porphyrin-based Membranes Used in Thiocyanate-selective Electrodes
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 892-900; doi:10.3390/s6080892
Received: 22 April 2006 / Accepted: 26 July 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (66 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present paper, the potentiometric response characteristics of ametalloporphyrin-based electrode in o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE) plasticizedpolyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane are presented for a set of monovalent anions. Asmembrane ionophore, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-porphyrin-Co(II)(CoTMeOPP) was used. To establish the optimum composition of the membrane, differentmolar percents of cationic
[...] Read more.
In the present paper, the potentiometric response characteristics of ametalloporphyrin-based electrode in o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE) plasticizedpolyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane are presented for a set of monovalent anions. Asmembrane ionophore, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-porphyrin-Co(II)(CoTMeOPP) was used. To establish the optimum composition of the membrane, differentmolar percents of cationic derivative (mol.% relative to ionophore) were used. Electrodesformulated with membranes containing 1 wt.% ionophore, 66 wt.% o-NPOE, 33 wt.% PVC(plasticizer: PVC = 2:1) and the lipophilic cationic derivative (35 mol%) are shown toexhibit high selectivity for thiocyanate with a near-Nernstian slope in the workingconcentration range of 1.0×10−1–1.0×10−5 M, with a good stability in time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Dioxin
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 915-924; doi:10.3390/s6080915
Received: 28 April 2006 / Accepted: 28 June 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A molecularly imprinted polymer for recognising selectively 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was made by a new non-covalent method employing a“dummy” template. The proposed way represents a simplification of a synthetic schemeproposed by Lübke et al.[1] for covalent imprinting. Comparison of extraction yields of thenovel polymer,
[...] Read more.
A molecularly imprinted polymer for recognising selectively 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was made by a new non-covalent method employing a“dummy” template. The proposed way represents a simplification of a synthetic schemeproposed by Lübke et al.[1] for covalent imprinting. Comparison of extraction yields of thenovel polymer, a non imprinted polymer and an imprinting polymer, prepared by theoriginal procedure demonstrates the binding capacity of the proposed polymer, which is inprinciple applicable to solid phase extraction (SPE) of dioxin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A New Saccharides and Nnucleosides Sensor Based on Tetrathiafulvalene-anthracene Dyad with Two Boronic Acid Groups
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 954-961; doi:10.3390/s6080954
Received: 30 April 2006 / Accepted: 17 July 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new saccharides sensor based on the TTF-anthracene dyad with two boronicacid (2) groups was designed and synthesized. This new saccharides sensor showsselectivity towards D-glucose while its analogue with one boronic acid group (1) wasreported to bind D-Fructose selectively. Moreover, reaction of compound
[...] Read more.
A new saccharides sensor based on the TTF-anthracene dyad with two boronicacid (2) groups was designed and synthesized. This new saccharides sensor showsselectivity towards D-glucose while its analogue with one boronic acid group (1) wasreported to bind D-Fructose selectively. Moreover, reaction of compound 2 with uridineinduced even larger fluorescence enhancement under the same condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessArticle The Nature of Aqueous Solutions of a Cationic Calix[4]arene: A Comparative Study of Dye–Calixarene and Dye–Surfactant Interactions
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 962-977; doi:10.3390/s6080962
Received: 30 April 2006 / Accepted: 17 July 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among different types of calixarenes, the water–soluble ones are of especial interestbecause of their possible applications in biochemical research. In order to elucidate the natureof aqueous solutions of a cationic amphiphilic calixarene, substituted tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene bearing hydrophilic choline groups at the upper rim, we
[...] Read more.
Among different types of calixarenes, the water–soluble ones are of especial interestbecause of their possible applications in biochemical research. In order to elucidate the natureof aqueous solutions of a cationic amphiphilic calixarene, substituted tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene bearing hydrophilic choline groups at the upper rim, we studied vis–spectroscopically the influence of the above system on the acid–base behavior of threeindicator dyes, namely, 2,4-dinitrophenol, bromophenol blue, and N,N/-dioctadecylrhodamine,at constant ionic strength of 0.05 M, maintained with NaCl addition. Simultaneously,‘apparent’ ionization constants, Kaa , of the same dyes were determined in the presence ofcommon cationic surfactant micelles. Within the concentration range from 1.0×10–5 to 0.01 M,the aforementioned water–soluble calixarene displays effects similar to those of micelles ofcetyltrimethylammonium bromide (or chloride). The shifts of the absorption and emissionbands in the visible region, as well as the alterations of the Kaa values against the ‘aqueous’ones appeared to be very similar in aqueous solutions of both calix[4]arene and cationicsurfactant. A conclusion can be made about aggregation (or association), i.e., micelleformation of the cationic calix[4]arene under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Uses of Dendrimers for DNA Microarrays
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 901-914; doi:10.3390/s6080901
Received: 27 April 2006 / Accepted: 27 July 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (2631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosensors such as DNA microarrays and microchips are gaining an increasingimportance in medicinal, forensic, and environmental analyses. Such devices are based onthe detection of supramolecular interactions called hybridizations that occur betweencomplementary oligonucleotides, one linked to a solid surface (the probe), and the other
[...] Read more.
Biosensors such as DNA microarrays and microchips are gaining an increasingimportance in medicinal, forensic, and environmental analyses. Such devices are based onthe detection of supramolecular interactions called hybridizations that occur betweencomplementary oligonucleotides, one linked to a solid surface (the probe), and the other oneto be analyzed (the target). This paper focuses on the improvements that hyperbranched andperfectly defined nanomolecules called dendrimers can provide to this methodology. Twomain uses of dendrimers for such purpose have been described up to now; either thedendrimer is used as linker between the solid surface and the probe oligonucleotide, or thedendrimer is used as a multilabeled entity linked to the target oligonucleotide. In the firstcase the dendrimer generally induces a higher loading of probes and an easier hybridization,due to moving away the solid phase. In the second case the high number of localized labels(generally fluorescent) induces an increased sensitivity, allowing the detection of smallquantities of biological entities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessReview Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 925-953; doi:10.3390/s6080925
Received: 12 April 2006 / Accepted: 9 June 2005 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 220 | PDF Full-text (2106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recentlydeveloped class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping tocreate a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest forbiosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow sizetunablephotoluminescent
[...] Read more.
Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recentlydeveloped class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping tocreate a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest forbiosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow sizetunablephotoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching andchemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for severalpredominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, asgeneralized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET) - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when workingwith QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s) and appropriate strategies forattaching biomolecules to the QDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessReview Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 978-1017; doi:10.3390/s6080978
Received: 9 May 2006 / Accepted: 3 July 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential
[...] Read more.
This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)
Open AccessReview Supramolecular Based Membrane Sensors
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 1018-1086; doi:10.3390/s6081018
Received: 9 May 2006 / Accepted: 28 July 2006 / Published: 24 August 2006
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supramolecular chemistry can be defined as a field of chemistry, which studiesthe complex multi-molecular species formed from molecular components that haverelatively simpler structures. This field has been subject to extensive research over the pastfour decades. This review discusses classification of supramolecules and their
[...] Read more.
Supramolecular chemistry can be defined as a field of chemistry, which studiesthe complex multi-molecular species formed from molecular components that haverelatively simpler structures. This field has been subject to extensive research over the pastfour decades. This review discusses classification of supramolecules and their application indesign and construction of ion selective sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Sensors)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessOther Special Issue of Photonic Sensors for Chemical, Biological, and Physical Parameter Detection
Sensors 2006, 6(8), 783-784; doi:10.3390/s6080783
Published: 15 August 2006
PDF Full-text (14 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

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