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Viruses 2014, 6(7), 2826-2857; doi:10.3390/v6072826

Membranous Replication Factories Induced by Plus-Strand RNA Viruses

Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Microscopy in Virus Diagnostics and Research)
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Abstract

In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the membranous replication factories of members of plus-strand (+) RNA viruses. We discuss primarily the architecture of these complex membrane rearrangements, because this topic emerged in the last few years as electron tomography has become more widely available. A general denominator is that two “morphotypes” of membrane alterations can be found that are exemplified by flaviviruses and hepaciviruses: membrane invaginations towards the lumen of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) and double membrane vesicles, representing extrusions also originating from the ER, respectively. We hypothesize that either morphotype might reflect common pathways and principles that are used by these viruses to form their membranous replication compartments.
Keywords: membrane rearrangements; electron microscopy; electron tomography; ultrastructure; double-membrane vesicles; membranous replication factories; hepatitis C virus; flaviviruses; picornaviruses; coronaviruses membrane rearrangements; electron microscopy; electron tomography; ultrastructure; double-membrane vesicles; membranous replication factories; hepatitis C virus; flaviviruses; picornaviruses; coronaviruses
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Romero-Brey, I.; Bartenschlager, R. Membranous Replication Factories Induced by Plus-Strand RNA Viruses. Viruses 2014, 6, 2826-2857.

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