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Viruses 2015, 7(5), 2683-2703; doi:10.3390/v7052683

The Use of Convalescent Sera in Immune-Electron Microscopy to Detect Non-Suspected/New Viral Agents

1
Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Virology Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia Romagna "Bruno Ubertini" (IZSLER), Via Bianchi 7/9, 25124 Brescia, Italy
2
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Sezione di Genova Piazza Borgo Pila 39, 16129 Genova, Italy
3
Epidemiological Unit, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna "Bruno Ubertini", Via Bianchi 7/9, 25124 Brescia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Laue
Received: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Microscopy in Virus Diagnostics and Research)
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Abstract

Negative staining electron microscopy methods can be employed for the diagnosis of viral particles in animal samples. In fact, negative staining electron microscopy methods are used to identify viruses, especially in minor species and wild animals, when no other methods are available and in cases of rare, emerging or re-emerging infections. In particular, immune-electron-microscopy with convalescent sera is employed to detect etiological agents when there are undiagnosed clinical outbreaks, when alternative diagnostic methods fail due to the lack of immunological reagents and primers, and when there is no indicative clinical suspect. An overview of immune-electron-microscopy with convalescent sera’s use in the diagnosis of new and unsuspected viruses in animals of domestic and wild species is provided through the descriptions of the following four diagnostic veterinary cases: (I) enteric viruses of pigs: Porcine Rotavirus, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Porcine Circovirus and Porcine Torovirus; (II) Rotavirus and astrovirus in young turkeys with enteritis; (III) Parvovirus-like particles in pheasants; and (IV) Lagoviruses: Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus and European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus. View Full-Text
Keywords: negative staining; diagnosis; immuno-aggregation electron microscopy; viruses; animals negative staining; diagnosis; immuno-aggregation electron microscopy; viruses; animals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lavazza, A.; Tittarelli, C.; Cerioli, M. The Use of Convalescent Sera in Immune-Electron Microscopy to Detect Non-Suspected/New Viral Agents. Viruses 2015, 7, 2683-2703.

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