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Special Issue "Sustainable Tourism and Climate Change: Impact, Adaptation and Mitigation"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jun Liu

Associate professor at Tourism School, Sichuan University, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable tourism; impact of climate change on vegetation landscape; phenology and tourism; carbon emissions of tourism
Guest Editor
Dr. Gang Liu

Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark (SDU), Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Material and energy flow analysis; Industrial Ecology; Urban metabolism; Circular economy; Sustainable resource and waste management; Critical infrastructure and built environment stocks; Complexity and linkages of sustainability
Guest Editor
Dr. This Rutishauser

Scientific collaborator, co-coordinator of BernClim Phenology Network, Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: phenology; impact on climate and environment; climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reaffirmed that global climate change is unequivocally occurring now, and its impact on natural resources has become increasingly apparent worldwide. Climate change is believed to be one of the most challenging aspects of sustainable development of the tourism industry, considering that tourism is a highly climate-dependent economic sector. At the same time, tourism contributes prominently to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and impedes the progress of global GHG emissions reduction efforts. Tourism industry, policymakers, and other relevant governmental bodies have widely recognized the pressing need to develop and implement polices to address this challenge, and to take actions to prevent it from projected risks, as well as to find a pathway to mitigate tourism-induced GHG emissions.

As such, this Special Issue aims to shed insights on the impacts of climate change on tourism, identify the vulnerable tourism destinations, investigate the perceptions and response behaviors of the tourism stakeholders, assess the adaptive capacity and tourism’s contribution to global warming, and in the end, explore  adaptation and mitigation strategies for the tourism sector. As Guest Editors for this Special Issue, we invite your contribution by submitting research articles, comprehensive reviews, and practical case studies that are related to but not limited to the following topics:


•    Sustainable development and tourism management
•    The observed impacts and vulnerability of climate changes on tourism
•    Projected risks and impacts for tourism in a complex and changing climate
•    The perceptions of tourists and tourism related stakeholders on climate change
•    New geographical distribution of tourism under climate change
•    Adaptation experience of tourism related stakeholders, destinations, and regions
•    The adaptive capacity of tourism and future opportunities for adaptation
•    Greenhouse gas emissions of tourism and their drivers
•    Future mitigation pathways of tourism
•    Tourism under climate change mitigation scenarios

Dr. Jun Liu
Dr. Gang Liu
Dr. This Rutishauser
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable tourism
  • Impacts of climate change on tourism
  • Risks prediction and simulation
  • Climate change perception
  • Adaptation experience
  • Tourism adaptive capacity
  • Adaptation measures
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Mitigation pathways

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Use of Household Survey Data as a Tool to Assess the Carbon Footprint of Rural Tourist Accommodation and Related Services in China: A Case Study of Mount Qingcheng
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1680; doi:10.3390/su9101680
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
The need to improve the accuracy of carbon emission measurements is a major issue which the tourism industry must resolve in order to reduce adverse impacts on climate change and the environment. This study established a detailed consumption list based on household survey
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The need to improve the accuracy of carbon emission measurements is a major issue which the tourism industry must resolve in order to reduce adverse impacts on climate change and the environment. This study established a detailed consumption list based on household survey data and calculated the carbon emissions of accommodation and services of the rural tourism industry of Mount Qingcheng using the input–output and lifecycle methods. Further, it analysed the key factors affecting carbon emissions. The results indicate that within the surveyed area, carbon emissions from accommodation and services amounted to 30.27 kg CO2/per person per day; these emissions were primarily from indirect sources, which accounted for 74.99% of the total emissions. Emissions from construction and production of durable goods accounted for 13.08% and 21.58% of the total emissions. The omission of these sources of carbon emissions was the primary reason for the carbon emission levels of the tourism industry being underestimated previously. For each additional 10,000 yuan in revenue, accommodation and related services of the rural tourism industry emit an additional 1412.08 kg of CO2. This is higher than the level of carbon emissions of the agriculture industry, but lower than those of the processing and manufacturing industries. Tourist consumption behaviours and types of tourism operations are important factors affecting carbon emissions. Effective emission reduction strategies include guiding tourist consumption behavioural changes, optimizing tourism operation portfolios, and extending the service life of constructions and durable goods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the EU, US, China, and India up to 2060 in Comparison with Their Pledges under the Paris Agreement
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1587; doi:10.3390/su9091587
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
A greenhouse gas (GHG) emission model was developed based on economic and energy sector development at the national level. Different development scenarios were established, including BAU (scenario with business as usual) and API (scenario with additional policy interventions). We simulated annual GHG emissions
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A greenhouse gas (GHG) emission model was developed based on economic and energy sector development at the national level. Different development scenarios were established, including BAU (scenario with business as usual) and API (scenario with additional policy interventions). We simulated annual GHG emissions under different scenarios for the EU, US, China, and India from 2016 to 2060, and evaluated the impacts of emission changes on their mitigation pledges (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Two main conclusions were obtained. (1) In API, EU’s emissions fell from 4160 to 2340 MtCO2e/year and would probably achieve its INDC pledge. Though US’s emissions fell from 6330 to 4020 MtCO2e/year, it still had a deficit of 370 MtCO2e in 2025. If the Clean Power Plan (CPP) is abandoned, US’s emissions would remain above 6000 MtCO2e/year. (2) In BAU, China’s emissions peaked in 2044 while India’s emissions were already close to the strict INDC target. In API, China and India both achieved a reduction of about 2000 MtCO2e exceeding their INDC targets in 2030. Chinese emissions peaked in 2030, but Indian emissions grew until 2060. This study also indicates that developed countries should play a more important role in future mitigation efforts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Climate Change on Tourism on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Research Based on a Literature Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1539; doi:10.3390/su9091539
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Irrespective of insights gained from previous studies on the impacts and adaptions associated with climate change; little consideration has been given to the effect of climate change on tourism on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Based on a conceptual framework of the impact of
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Irrespective of insights gained from previous studies on the impacts and adaptions associated with climate change; little consideration has been given to the effect of climate change on tourism on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Based on a conceptual framework of the impact of climate change on tourism in high-altitude regions; this paper reviews the literature pertaining to the effects of climate change on the natural characteristics of the QTP and it discusses the corresponding implications for tourism within the region. The findings show that the features of the QTP affected most by climate change comprise wetlands, glaciers, and the vegetation, wildlife, and climate resources. Accordingly, such effects could have considerable implications for related tourism activities. Climate change poses both challenges and opportunities for tourism development on the QTP. The information presented in this paper offers insight for tourism management on the QTP. Comprehensive measures involving all stakeholders should be taken to promote the sustainable development of tourism on the QTP, and to both mitigate the threats and exploit the opportunities related to climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Variation in Full-Flowering Dates of Tree Peonies in the Middle and Lower Reaches of China’s Yellow River: A Simulation through the Panel Data Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1343; doi:10.3390/su9081343
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The spring flowering of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) not only attract tens of million tourists every year, but it can also serve as a bio-indicator of climate change. Examining climate-associated spatiotemporal changes in peony flowering can contribute to the development of
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The spring flowering of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) not only attract tens of million tourists every year, but it can also serve as a bio-indicator of climate change. Examining climate-associated spatiotemporal changes in peony flowering can contribute to the development of smarter flower-viewing tourism by providing more efficient decision-making information. We developed a panel data model for the tree peony to quantify the relationship between full-flowering date (FFD) and air temperature in the middle and lower reaches of China’s Yellow River. Then, on the basis of the model and temperature data, FFD series at 24 sites during 1955–2011 were reconstructed and the spatiotemporal variation in FFD over the region was analysed. Our results showed that the panel data model could well simulate the phenophase at the regional scale with due consideration paid to efficiency and difficulty, and the advance of peony FFD responded to the increase in February–April temperature at a rate of 3.02 days/1 °C. In addition, the simulation revealed that regional FFDs followed the latitudinal gradient and had advanced by 6–9 days over the past 57 years, at the rate of 0.8 to 1.8 days/decade. Among sub-areas, the eastern forelands of Taihang Mountains and Luliang Mountains showed more FFD advances than the other areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chinese Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Mitigation Behavior: An Application of Norm Activation Theory
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1322; doi:10.3390/su9081322
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well recognized that tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, but is also a “victim” of climate change. Therefore, to mitigate climate change is of great importance for the sustainability of tourism. Yet extant studies regarding tourism and climate
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It is well recognized that tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, but is also a “victim” of climate change. Therefore, to mitigate climate change is of great importance for the sustainability of tourism. Yet extant studies regarding tourism and climate change tend to be dominated by a supply-side stance, albeit the core role of the tourist in the tourism industry. While researchers are increasingly adopting a tourist perspective, few seek to understand the linkage between climate change and tourists’ specific mitigation behaviors in a tourism context; this is especially so in China. This study investigates the impact of Chinese tourists’ perceptions of climate change on their mitigation behaviors based on norm activation theory. Drawing on 557 self-administrated questionnaires collected in China, it finds that tourists’ perceptions of climate change and perceived contribution of tourism to climate change both positively affect energy saving and carbon reduction behavior in tourism. Yet, compared with perceived contribution of tourism to climate change, tourists’ perceptions of climate change are found to be a much stronger predictor for energy saving and carbon reduction behavior. Therefore, it suggests that tourists’ perceptions of climate change in a general context is more strongly related to climate change mitigation behavior in tourism, calling for attention to go beyond the tourism context to alleviate the negative impacts of tourism on climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Climate Change on Outdoor Skating in the Bei Hai Park of Beijing and Related Adaptive Strategies
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1147; doi:10.3390/su9071147
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper reports findings derived from a study of the impacts of climate change on winter outdoor skating activities in the Chinese park of Bei Hai from 1989 to 2015. Based on field observation data and in-depth interviews, it was concluded that the
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This paper reports findings derived from a study of the impacts of climate change on winter outdoor skating activities in the Chinese park of Bei Hai from 1989 to 2015. Based on field observation data and in-depth interviews, it was concluded that the outdoor skating activities, with a history of more than 1000 years, are being threatened by the warming climate. The opening dates and duration times of skating over the last 26 years showed periodic variations over three-year cycles. Increases of temperatures by 1 °C in December were associated with a 3.80-day delay in the skating-field opening dates and a 4.49-day decrease in the operation duration times. In particular, climate change has resulted in a loss of the skating field area and a reduction in the operation duration times, and tourists are moving north for skating-related recreation or conducting alternative activities. The current adaptive strategies are not very effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Climate Variability on Flowering Phenology and Its Implications for the Schedule of Blossom Festivals
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1127; doi:10.3390/su9071127
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Many tourism destinations characterized by spring blossom festivals (e.g., cherry blossom festival) became increasingly popular around the world. Usually, spring blossom festivals should be planned within the flowering period of specific ornamental plants. In the context of climate and phenological change, whether the
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Many tourism destinations characterized by spring blossom festivals (e.g., cherry blossom festival) became increasingly popular around the world. Usually, spring blossom festivals should be planned within the flowering period of specific ornamental plants. In the context of climate and phenological change, whether the administrators of tourism destinations had perceived and responded to the flowering phenological variability is still unknown. Using the data of climate, blossom festival dates (BFD) of three tourist attractions, and first flowering dates (FFD) of specific species in Beijing, China, we analyzed the flowering phenological response to temperature and the impact of FFDs on BFDs from 1989 to 2016. It was shown that the flowering time of ornamental plants varied significantly among years in response to temperature variability. The administrators of Beijing Botanical Garden and Yuyuantan Park determined peach BFD and cherry BFD based on their experience rather than FFD of corresponding plants. Therefore, the mismatch between BFD and FFD occurred frequently at these two locations. However, the administrator of Jingshan Park scheduled the peony BFD following the variance of FFD of tree peony. These results revealed the various perceptions of climate change impacts for stakeholders of blossom festivals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Spatial Differentiation of the Suitability of Ice-Snow Tourist Destinations Based on a Comprehensive Evaluation Model in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 774; doi:10.3390/su9050774
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
Ice, snow, and rime are wonders of the cold season in an alpine climate zone and climate landscape. With its pure, spectacular, and magical features, these regions attract numerous tourists. Ice and snow landscapes can provide not only visually-stimulating experiences for people, but
[...] Read more.
Ice, snow, and rime are wonders of the cold season in an alpine climate zone and climate landscape. With its pure, spectacular, and magical features, these regions attract numerous tourists. Ice and snow landscapes can provide not only visually-stimulating experiences for people, but also opportunities for outdoor play and movement. In China, ice and snow tourism is a new type of recreation; however, the establishment of snow and ice in relation to the suitability of the surrounding has not been clearly expressed. Based on multi-source data, such as tourism, weather, and traffic data, this paper employs the Delphi-analytic hierarchy process (AHP) evaluation method and a spatial analysis method to study the spatial differences of snow and ice tourism suitability in China. China’s ice and snow tourism is located in the latitude from 35°N to 53.33°N and latitude 41.5°N to 45°N and longitude 82°E to 90°E, with the main focus on latitude and terrain factors. A poor fit is concentrated at latitude 20.45°N to 35°N and longitude 100°E to 122°E; the difference is that the latitude is low and affected by the Japanese warm current. The analysis of the suitability of ice and snow tourism can be employed as a reference for the development of ice and snow tourism. Full article
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