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Special Issue "Governance for Climate Smart Agriculture"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Verschuuren

Tilburg Sustainability Center, Tilburg University, Warandelaan 2, 5037 AB Tilburg, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31-13-4668255
Interests: climate law; climate smart agriculture; food security; adaptation; mitigation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Between now and 2050, there will be a sharp increase in the demand for agricultural products due to an increase of the world’s population, the rise in global calorie intake, due to greater affluence, and the production of bio-fuels. The increase in agricultural production will be accompanied by an increase in the emission of greenhouse gases. Agriculture is responsible for 30% of global greenhouse emissions. Agriculture is, not only a major cause of climate change, but, in many regions of the world, it is also seriously impacted by climate change. In many regions, produce will be negatively affected because of shifts in water availability, temperature shifts, and changes in the occurrence of pests. Policy documents, mostly written by international institutions, have endorsed climate smart agriculture as a means to achieve production growth, while at the same reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses and adapting the agricultural sector to the changing climate. Agro-ecology, sustainable intensification, and organic farming are other terms used to label the move towards more sustainable forms of agriculture under climate change. Despite the wide endorsement of sustainable, climate smart farming practices and technologies by the scientific community, it seems unlikely that the entire agricultural sector across the world will convert from conventional to climate smart agriculture anytime soon. Therefore, the broad adoption of climate smart agriculture now has primarily become a governance issue. What interventions are needed to stimulate farmers and agri-businesses to move to climate smart practices and technologies, and how can consumers be steered towards climate smart food consumption?

This Special Issue will focus on a wide range of governance issues related to these questions from a multidisciplinary perspective, including, but not limited to, law, economics, business administration, policy, public administration, sociology and psychology.

Prof. Dr. Jonathan Verschuuren
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate smart agriculture
  • agro-ecology
  • food security
  • climate change
  • governance

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Impact of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Practices on Cotton Production and Livelihood of Farmers in Punjab, Pakistan
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062101
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Cotton is the second largest crop of Pakistan in terms of area after wheat and is being suffered by multiple shocks over the time due to conventional agricultural management practices, climate change, and market failures. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced by the
[...] Read more.
Cotton is the second largest crop of Pakistan in terms of area after wheat and is being suffered by multiple shocks over the time due to conventional agricultural management practices, climate change, and market failures. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in 2010, as an innovative cleaner production alternative to conventional farming that aimed at increasing the efficiency of natural resources, resilience, and productivity of agricultural production system, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The adverse effects of climate change on cotton production at the farm and regional level can be minimized by using CSA practices and technologies. The present study investigated the financial performance and explored the impact of CSA through sustainable water use management on cotton production in Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) irrigation system of Punjab, Pakistan by using Cobb-Douglas production function. The adopters of CSA in cotton cultivation were identified by conducting six focus group discussions. Data were collected through well-structured questionnaire from 133 adopters of CSA and 65 conventional cotton growers for the cropping season 2016–2017. It was found that water-smart (raising crops on bed, laser land levelling, conjunctive use of water and drainage management), energy-smart (minimum tillage), carbon-smart (less use of chemicals) and knowledge-smart (crop rotation and improved varieties i.e., tolerant to drought, flood and heat/cold stresses) practices and technologies of CSA were adopted by the cotton farmers in the study area. Most of the farmers were of the view that they are adopting CSA practices and technologies due to the limited supply of canal water, climate change, drought-prone, massive groundwater extraction, rapidly declining groundwater table and increasing soil salinity over the time. Results revealed that uniform germination, higher yield and financial returns, the concentration of inputs and increase in resource use efficiency are the main advantages of CSA. The econometric analysis showed that implementation of CSA practices and technologies as judicious use of water and fertilizer, groundwater quality, access to extension services, and appropriate method and time of picking have a significant impact on the gross value of cotton product (GVP). The findings of the study would be helpful for policy makers to formulate policies that can minimize farmer’s financial burden to adopt CSA technologies and implement for scaling out in Punjab and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Governance for Climate Smart Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle What You Sow Is What You Reap? (Dis-)Incentives for Adaptation Intentions in Farming
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041133
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Adaptation by farmers and other land managers responsible for climate-sensitive activities is central to ensuring resilience in the face of ongoing climate variability and change. However, there remains an adaptation deficit among agricultural producers: action to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate
[...] Read more.
Adaptation by farmers and other land managers responsible for climate-sensitive activities is central to ensuring resilience in the face of ongoing climate variability and change. However, there remains an adaptation deficit among agricultural producers: action to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is insufficient. To motivate adaptation, diverse incentives are in place most notably through the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy which offers financial incentives to farmers. However, the effect of incentives on behaviour appears to be low. To better understand adaptation intentions, we report on the results of a survey experiment assessing framing effects on German farmers. Four framings of adaptation motifs—financial, norms, risk awareness, and technological innovation—are tested against a socio-cognitive model based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). According to PMT, adaptation intentions are a function of an individual’s risk and coping appraisal. Results show that, contrary to assumptions of profit maximizing individuals, economic incentives trigger fewer overall change intentions. Economic rewards do act on risk perception, but are less likely to trigger coping perception, while other treatments do. As coping perception is one of two socio-cognitive reactions to climate change, financial incentive structures fail to act on about half the factors leading to adaptation intentions. These effects dependent on subgroups, farm structures, and are mediated by climate experience. To support transitions towards robust adaptation, adaptation incentives must move beyond financial framings alone, and leverage on farmers’ recent experiences with adverse climate impacts, understandings of climate change, and the influence of social norms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Governance for Climate Smart Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Variability and Change in Bihar, India: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Crop Production
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111998
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Climate change and associated uncertainties have serious direct and indirect consequences for crop production and food security in agriculture-based developing regions. Long-term climate data analysis can identify climate risks and anticipate new ones for planning appropriate adaptation and mitigation options. The aim of
[...] Read more.
Climate change and associated uncertainties have serious direct and indirect consequences for crop production and food security in agriculture-based developing regions. Long-term climate data analysis can identify climate risks and anticipate new ones for planning appropriate adaptation and mitigation options. The aim of this study was to identify near-term (2030) and mid-term (2050) climate risks and/or opportunities in the state of Bihar, one of India’s most populous and poorest states, using weather data for 30 years (1980–2009) as a baseline. Rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, and evapotranspiration will all increase in the near- and mid-term periods relative to the baseline period, with the magnitude of the change varying with time, season and location within the state. Bihar’s major climate risks for crop production will be heat stress due to increasing minimum temperatures in the rabi (winter) season and high minimum and maximum temperatures in the spring season; and intense rainfall and longer dry spells in the kharif (monsoon) season. The increase in annual and seasonal rainfall amounts, and extended crop growing period in the kharif season generally provide opportunities; but increasing temperature across the state will have considerable negative consequences on (staple) crops by affecting crop phenology, physiology and plant-water relations. The study helps develop site-specific adaptation and mitigation options that minimize the negative effects of climate change while maximizing the opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Governance for Climate Smart Agriculture)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Institutional Perspectives of Climate-Smart Agriculture: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061990
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is increasingly seen as a promising approach to feed the growing world population under climate change. The review explored how institutional perspectives are reflected in the CSA literature. In total, 137 publications were analyzed using institutional analysis framework, of which
[...] Read more.
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is increasingly seen as a promising approach to feed the growing world population under climate change. The review explored how institutional perspectives are reflected in the CSA literature. In total, 137 publications were analyzed using institutional analysis framework, of which 55.5% make specific reference to institutional dimensions. While the CSA concept encompasses three pillars (productivity, adaptation, and mitigation), the literature has hardly addressed them in an integrated way. The development status of study sites also seems to influence which pillars are promoted. Mitigation was predominantly addressed in high-income countries, while productivity and adaptation were priorities for middle and low-income countries. Interest in institutional aspects has been gradual in the CSA literature. It has largely focused on knowledge infrastructure, market structure, and hard institutional aspects. There has been less attention to understand whether investments in physical infrastructure and actors’ interaction, or how historical, political, and social context may influence the uptake of CSA options. Rethinking the approach to promoting CSA technologies by integrating technology packages and institutional enabling factors can provide potential opportunities for effective scaling of CSA options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Governance for Climate Smart Agriculture)
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