Special Issue "Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples"

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Antonio Martin-Esteban

INIA, Dept Medio Ambiente, Carretera A Coruña Km 7, Madrid 28040, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sample preparation; molecular imprinting; chromatographic techniques; environmental and food analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Esther Turiel

INIA, Dept Medio Ambiente, Carretera A Coruña Km 7, Madrid 28040, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sample preparation; molecular imprinting; chromatographic techniques; environmental and food analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During last few decades, massive industrial and agricultural development has been accompanied by the release of a great variety of contaminants to the environment. Such compounds, depending on their physicochemical properties, might be incorporated into the food chain, which represents an important public concern. Accordingly, authorities have established restrictions to protect our environment from potential harmful substances. It has made the development of analytical methodologies, mainly based on chromatographic techniques, able to detect and determine a wide variety of compounds at very low concentration levels, in both food and environmental samples, in a reliable and accurate manner, necessary.

We would like to invite colleagues to contribute with original research articles and reviews to the present Special Issue on the latest trends in chromatographic techniques for the analysis of contaminants in environmental and food samples, including recent advances in sample preparation.

Dr. Antonio Martin-Esteban
Dr. Esther Turiel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Separations is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • organic contaminants

  • environmental analysis

  • food analysis

  • sample preparation

  • solid-phase extraction

  • solid-phase microextraction

  • liquid-phase microextraction

  • chromatographic techniques

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Assessment, Validation and Application to Real Samples of an RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Guayulins A, B, C and D in Guayule Shrub
Separations 2018, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5020023
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is a shrub native to the arid regions of Mexico. In the last decades, significant attention to its cultivation has arisen because it is the raw material for the production of hypoallergenic natural rubber. Guayule biomass also contains
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Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is a shrub native to the arid regions of Mexico. In the last decades, significant attention to its cultivation has arisen because it is the raw material for the production of hypoallergenic natural rubber. Guayule biomass also contains high amounts of resin, which is not normally exploited in any way. Among other sesquiterpenic esters, guayulins (i.e., the parteniol esters of cinnamic acid, guayulin A, or of anisic acid, guayulin B) are contained in resin. In addition, minor amounts of guayulin C and guayulin D are formed by degradation/oxidation of guayulins A and B, respectively. Guayulins likely act as cinnamate and p-anisate reservoirs for the Guayule shrub; in addition, it has been postulated that they might have a key role in the chemical defense system of Guayule. Furthermore, it seems reasonable that guayulins may possess significant biological properties (e.g., antibacterial and anticancer activities), in close analogy with those shown by sesquiterpene lactones contained in many other species of Parthenum genus. As a matter of fact, guayulins A and B play an important role in the synthesis of antineoplastics used in breast cancer treatment. In this contribution we propose an original and validated RP-HPLC approach to the simultaneous quantification of guayulins A, B, C and D. The procedure of resin extraction from Guayule biomass has been optimized in terms of both extraction method and solvent. RP-HPLC separation has been accomplished by an Ascentis® C18 column under isocratic elution with a 80:20 (v:v) acetonitrile:water mixture. Validation was carried out in terms of limits of detection and quantification, linearity, precision, and trueness. Finally, the method was tested with a number of fresh and seasoned samples of spontaneous Guayule shrub from Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Determination of Selected Aromas in Marquette and Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-SPME Coupled with GC-MS and Simultaneous Olfactometry
Separations 2018, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5010020
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette
[...] Read more.
Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette cultivars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous olfactometry was used to identify and quantify selected, aroma-imparting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wines made from grapes harvested at two sugar levels (22° Brix and 24° Brix). Aroma-imparting compounds were determined by aroma dilution analysis (ADA). Odor activity values (OAV) were also used to aid the selection of aroma-imparting compounds. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that VOCs in wines produced from both sugar levels of Marquette grapes are similar to each other, and more similar to wines produced from Frontenac grapes harvested at 24° Brix. Selected key aroma compounds in Frontenac and Marquette wines were ethyl hexanoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl butyrate. OAVs >1000 were reported for three aroma compounds that impart fruity aromas to the wines. This study provides evidence that aroma profiles in Frontenac wines can be influenced by timing of harvesting the berries at different Brix. Future research should focus on whether this is because of berry development or accumulation of aroma precursors and sugar due to late summer dehydration. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses can be useful for the understanding development of aroma profile perceptions for wines produced from cold-climate grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Hollow Fibre Membrane-Protected Molecularly Imprinted Microsolid-Phase Extraction (HFM-Protected-MI-MSPE) of Triazines from Soil Samples
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a combination of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology with micro solid-phase extraction in a hollow fibre device is described. MIP microspheres were synthesized and packed into polypropylene hollow fibre (HF) segments. The proposed device was used directly for trace enrichment
[...] Read more.
In this work, a combination of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology with micro solid-phase extraction in a hollow fibre device is described. MIP microspheres were synthesized and packed into polypropylene hollow fibre (HF) segments. The proposed device was used directly for trace enrichment and clean-up of triazines in soil sample extracts by hollow-fibre membrane-protected molecularly imprinted micro solid-phase extraction (HFM-protected-MI-MSPE). Analytes were extracted from soil by ultrasonic assisted extraction, evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in toluene. The proposed device was immersed in the toluene extracts, and migrations of analytes through the walls of the hollow fibre was achieved with the help of external agitation. Then, selective recognition of the target analytes by MIP-microspheres took place in the inner part of the HF. All parameters affecting the extraction were optimized. Under optimum conditions, quantitative recoveries were obtained for simazine, cyanazine, atrazine, propazine and terbutylazine in soil samples, with relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The detection limits (LODs) were lower than 5 ng g−1 in all cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of 2-Thioxo-3-pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde in Salted Radish Root (Takuan-zuke) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection after Pre-Column Derivatization Using 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-hydrazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole
Separations 2017, 4(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations4040035
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
2-thioxo-3-pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde (TPC) is an important intermediate in the yellowing of Japanese pickles “takuan-zuke”. TPC has been reported to have antibacterial activity against bacteria causing food poisoning and microorganisms associated with the development of caries, as well as various physiological functions such as antimutagenicity.
[...] Read more.
2-thioxo-3-pyrrolidinecarbaldehyde (TPC) is an important intermediate in the yellowing of Japanese pickles “takuan-zuke”. TPC has been reported to have antibacterial activity against bacteria causing food poisoning and microorganisms associated with the development of caries, as well as various physiological functions such as antimutagenicity. However, since TPC has high reactivity, robust quantitative analysis is difficult with the extraction method or pre-column derivatization method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method involving labeling with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-hydrazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-H) was developed for the determination of the level of TPC in takuan-zuke. DBD-TPC was successfully stabilized by adding a buffer solution to the reaction solution, which established continuous analysis by HPLC using an autosampler. The DBD-TPC calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.25–250 nmol/mL (final concentration) and showed a wide dynamic range. The lower limit of detection was 0.205 nmol/mL in TPC standard. The proposed method was successfully applied to the measurement of TPC in daikon-oroshi. The results reveal the possibility of determining the variation of TPC level in processed foods containing radish. We concluded that the proposed method is useful for evaluating the quality of processed radish products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Biocide Econea® in Artificial Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
Separations 2017, 4(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations4040034
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Econea®, or 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile, is a new type of environmentally friendly anti-fouling compound used in the immersed coatings of commercial sea going vessels. This paper reports the development of a new analytical method to directly detect the active biocide Econea® in
[...] Read more.
Econea®, or 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile, is a new type of environmentally friendly anti-fouling compound used in the immersed coatings of commercial sea going vessels. This paper reports the development of a new analytical method to directly detect the active biocide Econea® in an artificial sea water matrix using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The developed method is both rapid and sensitive, with a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/L and a limit of quantitation of 0.17 μg/L in artificial seawater. The subsequent developed method was then applied to investigate the biocide’s release from a commercially available Econea® containing paint immersed in artificial sea water over a 45-day period. It was found that the average release rate of Econea® from this paint was 4.3 ± 0.6 μg cm−2 d−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Determination of the Three Main Components of the Grapevine Moth Pest Pheromone in Grape-Related Samples by Headspace-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Separations 2017, 4(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations4040031
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) is the most significant pest of viticulture. This article reports the development of an analytical method that allows the instrumental determination of the three main pheromone components of the pest ((E,Z)-7,9-dodecadien-1-yl acetate,
[...] Read more.
The grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) is the most significant pest of viticulture. This article reports the development of an analytical method that allows the instrumental determination of the three main pheromone components of the pest ((E,Z)-7,9-dodecadien-1-yl acetate, (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadien-1-ol and (Z)-9-dodecen-1-yl acetate) in grape-related samples (must, table grape and wine grape). The combination of headspace, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry provides limits of detection in the range of 60–420 ng/Kg and precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation, better than 8.5%. This analytical approach is rapid and simple and opens a door to the study of the pest incidence on the final products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatographic Techniques for Food and Environmental Samples)
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